International Journal of Library Science

p-ISSN: 2168-488X    e-ISSN: 2168-4901

2020;  9(5): 105-113


Received: Nov. 25, 2020; Accepted: Dec. 12, 2020; Published: Dec. 26, 2020


Assessing the Compliance of the Commission of University Education (CUE) Standards for the Library Physical Facilities at Rongo University Library, Western Kenya

Irene Nyakweba1, Joyce Muwangu2, Eunice N. N. Sendikadiwa2

1Kisii University, Kisii, Kenya

2Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Correspondence to: Irene Nyakweba, Kisii University, Kisii, Kenya.


Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


The ultimate goal of University Libraries is to provide services that satisfy the information needs of users. The best way to find out whether the services and facilities in place address these needs is to go out and find out from the users. The purpose of this study is to assess whether university libraries in the Western region comply to the Commission of University Education (CUE) standards for library physical facilities. The study was conducted at the Rongo University Library which was purposively selected from six universities in Western Kenya. The main respondents comprised of 52 undergraduate students and 12 lecturers from selected departments. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and structured questionnaire to collect data. The study results were analyzed using descriptive statistics aided by SPSS and presented in graphs and tabulated summaries. The study found out that the respondents perceive that the Rongo university library has inadequate physical facilities to provide quality information resources and services that supports teaching, learning and research endeavors of the university. The study eminently noted that dwindling budget allocation was hampering a clear compliance to the CUE standard for library facilities. Findings and recommendations of the study will be significantly important to Library Management in Universities to enable them identify the reasons of inadequate library facilities and how this can be improved to meet the standards of information provision excellence set by CUE. The study concluded that the University Libraries should provide both physical and virtual spaces to enable users can access relevant information resources.

Keywords: Libraries, Information resources, Library physical facilities, Commission of University Education, Rongo University

Cite this paper: Irene Nyakweba, Joyce Muwangu, Eunice N. N. Sendikadiwa, Assessing the Compliance of the Commission of University Education (CUE) Standards for the Library Physical Facilities at Rongo University Library, Western Kenya, International Journal of Library Science, Vol. 9 No. 5, 2020, pp. 105-113. doi: 10.5923/j.library.20200905.01.

1. Introduction

A University Library is established to provide information materials to its community with an aim of supporting the teaching, learning and research endeavors. In this context, being a local center of the institution, a library is set up to serve its parent institution and is considered as an organ around which all academic activities revolve hence can aptly be described as the heart of the university (Ogbuiyi & Okpe, 2013). According to Kavulya (2004), University Libraries in most developing countries record a major state of severe economic insufficiencies. This situation is characterized with diminishing budgets, inadequate facilities and personnel, poor infrastructure, limited space and so on. As a result, with such kind of inadequacies, most university libraires in Sub-Saharan Africa agonize with poor facilities, low numbers of trained personnel, inability to reach out to the users and so on. It has been argued that since libraries are directly linked to the improvement of the quality of students intellectual output, support standards of teaching and research and generally contributes to the social- economic development of the country, it is necessary to put in place sufficient mechanisms to ensure their role is not at jeopardy.
University Libraries in the Kenyan context also experience deteriorating facilities due to low budgetary allocation which negatively impacts on service provision. Such challenges notwithstanding, increasingly, Libraries in academic institutions in Kenya, still play their professional roles of selecting and acquiring learning resources. The information materials provided basically contributes to the intellectual development of the users and enable them to make informed decisions in their various activities be it education, research, or even general knowledge. The materials provided in the libraries must be well organized through cataloguing and classification. The information is disseminated through the reference and circulation services, documentation and bibliographical services. Besides provision of resources, university libraries also engage in pursuit, promotion and dissemination of knowledge, provision of intellectual leadership, manpower development, and promotion of social and economic modernization and promotion of intra and inter-continental and international understanding.
According to Ogunsola (2004) in recent times, it has become a major concern to evaluate users' satisfaction with the information resources and facilities available. Kavulya (2004) observes that the library facilities have an important effect on the quality of service delivery and a major role for information professionals.Therefore, the need for standards for assessing the general performance of the University Libraries service provision cannot be overemphasized.
The International Federation of Library Association (IFLA), “has produced a wide range of standards in all fields of library and information services including the design of libraries and facilities that enhance access.” In the IFLA Library Building Guidelines: Developments & Reflections, Latimer, K and Niegaard, K. (2007) observes that libraries, services and premises are in the information age. Hence, the need for planning and designing modern buildings that are attractive, efficient with service -oriented spaces for the new user to be considered. This implies that planning of library facilities is not only rated on their functionality and flexibility but on their ambience and aesthetics at the comfort of the client. In this regard, library facilities encompasses those with; good ventilation and conducive ventilation, sufficient doorways for exit in case of emergency, secure windows open able to external air, ease of movement of users, staff and library resources, library impression, carrels and tables can accommodate laptops, computer and electronic equipment are accessible in the library, emergency and fire safety measures, spaced corridors, uniform ceiling heights, ambient lighting, separate door for delivery and dispatch, entrance and exit points for good security conduciveness to learning, facilities convenient for users with special needs, and facilities that generate maximum use of resources, the location of the library must be centrally placed.
University libraries in Kenya are guided by standards and guidelines for information service provision. (Universities Standards and Guidelines, 2014). The standards and guidelines provide the framework of information services provision.Standard LIBR/STD/06 for library facilities in the CUE standards and guidelines points out that, “A University shall provide adequate facility for students, lecturers, staff and other authorized users as a convenient and conducive place for study and research.” This implies that the library facilities shall besides facilitating delivery of quality services, they shall provide a conducive environment for the users.
This study is thus guided by the CUE standards for library facilities in finding out from the users whether the public University Libraries in Western Kenya have put in place what the standards stipulates. The findings of this study will be significantly important in helping the university management to identify gaps that need to be attended to in order to improve library facilities in their universities, sensitize university management on challenges that University Libraries experience while putting in place the facilities and maintaining them.

2. Literature Review

For a conducive environment, compliance to physical standards by University Libraries is one of the key requirements above anything else. University libraries must meet the bare minimum in terms of infrastructure to satisfy their users who are their main stakeholders.
The Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL, 2016) stipulated that the University Library space should support the learning outcomes, be accessible and well maintained. Even though students are not using the print collection, they still choose to go to the physical library for their academic pursuits. The continuing preferences of students for library space can be examined in the light of a hierarchy of needs made up of layers of access and linkages, of uses and activities, of sociability, and of comfort and image. A space which combines attributes from all four levels is an ideal learning space.
Andrews, Wright and Raskin (2016) addressed Library learning spaces, furniture, technology and space needs. Assessing the physical space in an academic library can emphasize on the importance to fully support students' diverse needs for learning spaces. However, inefficient space design and planning give rise to crowded and underutilized spaces in a library, thereby probably lowering students' learning outcomes and wasting costly space. Holder and Lange (2014) set out to assess users' reactions to two newly re-designed spaces – one intended for quiet study and the other for group study. The user’s opinion indicated that each of the spaces assessed was most effective for the type of activity for which it was designed and they preferred traditional furniture, such as tables and desk chairs, over comfortable pieces for group work and for quiet study. The continuing preferences of students for library space can be examined in the light of a hierarchy of needs made up of layers of access and linkages, of uses and activities, of sociability, and of comfort and image. Cunningham and Tabur (2012), observed that daylight creates an ambience of quiet tranquility and visual comfort to link the modern library user, psychologically, with the space they occupy. In order to provide comfortable and glare-free light in reading spaces, volumes and surfaces illuminated with natural light have played a significant role. There should be optimum natural light which provides comfort for the user, albeit without the negative aspects of glare and heat.
Majinge, R. M., & Stilwell, C. (2014) reveal that academic libraries provide services to people with visual impairments and in wheel chairs but these services are not inclusive or universal. Their study recommended that academic libraries, as manifest in the social model, should strive to provide inclusive services to all users including people with disabilities, as well as constructing library buildings with ramps and maintaining working lifts, acquiring Braille and large print information resources, as well as providing assistive equipment.
Omosekeji, Ijiekhuamhen and Ojeme (2015) describes how the information bearing materials of the library can be secured using traditional and electronic measures. Literature were reviewed on the concept of information resources security, features of a good security measures (traditional and electronic), securing the library resources traditionally, securing the library using telecommunication, benefits of securing the library resources, problems associated with the use of electronic security system in the library, and ways of solving problems with the use of electronic security system in the library.
Ahenkorah-Marfo & Borteye (2010) in their study on disaster preparedness in academic libraries recommended that there should be an emergency exit clearly and visibly marked as such and should come with directional signs showing users where to pass to avoid confusion and stampede, all electrical gadgets should be turned off immediately when power goes off.
The findings of Wachira and Onyancha (2017) were discussed under four main subject areas: ranging from services for remote users, library physical facilities, creating awareness on what services are available for users, and policies governing the remote access and utilization of resources. The study found out that respondents felt that the library facilities in the selected university libraries were inadequate more so in relation to ICT infrastructure. Majority of commentators pointed out that; “given that the Y-generating have access to modern electronic devices like i-phones, laptops, the library’s wireless connectivity to enable the users access information at the convenience of their personal spaces.
In reference to ICT infrastructure, Chaputula (2018) established that institutions require ICT infrastructure which is necessary for offering library and information services on mobile phone platforms. Moreover, students have mobile phones with internet connectivity which they can use to facilitate their access to services offered by libraries. The recommendation was that, in order to provide efficient library information services, there is need to develop good ICT infrastructure as well as librarians’ ICT skills. Tiwari, B. K., & Sahoo, K. C. (2013) observed that libraries use ICT’s to maintain housekeeping operations, services, uniformity and extension of library facilities. They ingrained that University Libraries of Rajasthan (India) are using computer and associated technology for library activities. Their study attempted to reveal the basic infrastructure, use, and privation during the implementation of ICT in University Libraries of Rajasthan. Emmanuel and Sife (2008) noted that accessibility of e-resources is only possible if ICT equipment such as computers, servers, video machines and overhead projectors together with the necessary telecommunications support and requirements for Internet connections are at hand.
Weng’ua, Rotichand Kogos (2019) results indicate that library and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are the major research infrastructure in Kenyan Universities. Chepkorir, Naibei and Cheruiyot (2017) cites the Report of The Public Universities Inspection Board (Republic of Kenya, 2006) which observed that the availability of IT facilities in universities in Kenya directly impacts on the quality of learning and teaching in the affiliate institution. The Board further reports that; “ the accelerated growth in student numbers in the public universities had not been matched by expansion of physical facilities, libraries and academic infrastructure and that some of the existing infrastructure was inadequate, dilapidated and in bad state of despair” In addition the study by Chepkorir, Naibei and Cheruiyot (2017) found out that, “the inadequacy of library resources, internet facilities in University of Kabianga negatively affected the quality of teaching and learning in the university.”
Although most of the studies reviewed have generally concurred that University Libraries have challenges in the providing adequate physical facilities due to finance inconsistencies, there is still a gap in the literature on ambience and its impact on conducive learning; convenience for users with special needs; good and conducive ventilation; sufficient doorways for exit in case of emergency; secure windows open to allow external air; ease of movement of users; staff and library resources; library impression; carrels and tables that can accommodate laptops, computer and electronic equipment; emergency and fire safety measures; spaced corridors; uniform ceiling heights; ambient lighting; separate door for delivery and dispatch; and entrance and exit points for good security located in a central place.
Further, several studies have also been undertaken in Kenya for example Wachira and Onyancha (2017); Weng’ua, Rotich and Kogos (2019); Chepkorir, Naibei and Cheruiyot (2017) to investigate the challenges facing university libraries; many have focused on issues such administration, finances, ICT without a particular reference to the library physical facilities. This is a gap in knowledge worth filling given that libraries physical facilities play an important role in the university.

3. Research Methodology

The study was conducted at Rongo University, which was set up in 2012 and is the most recently chartered public university in Kenya. Rongo was formerly a Constituent College of Moi University. The University is located at high land of Kitere Hills, Rongo Sub County, Migori County situated in the South Western part of Kenya, bordering Tanzania. Rongo University Library was selected for the study based on its nature as a public university offering academic programs in various areas. The study’s interest was also to focus on a university located in Western Kenya.
The study uses a descriptive survey design, which determines and reports the way things are and helps in establishing the current status of the population under study (Magenta and Magenta, 2003). The surveys are used to provide a snapshot of how things are (Denscombe, 2014). According to Kothari (2019), the purpose of surveys is concerned with assessing, describing, recording, analyzing and interpreting conditions that either exists or existed; hence the study clearly fits in adopting a descriptive research design since the data related to the compliance of standards on library physical facilities at Rongo University Library was collected as it is with no alterations.
The target population of the study comprised of undergraduate students and lecturers from six schools; School of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Business and Human Resource Development, School of Education, School of Information, Communication and Media Studies, School of Science, Technology and Engineering. The list was generated from the registrar, academic and registrar administration respectively. The study adopted stratified random sampling to derive at appropriate samples from the students and lecturers who are heterogeneous in nature. The lectures are from different departments and students are enrolled in different courses. Table 1 shows the distribution of students and lecturers’ population and sample size.
Table 1. Distribution of Students and Lecturers population and sample size
The study used structured questionnaires to collect data from the sampled respondents. The questionnaire had both open and close ended questions. The questionnaires were structured to provide information such as background information in order to obtain accurate data from the respective respondent in relation to the status of physical infrastructure. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics that included means, standard deviation.

4. Results and Discussions

The section presents the findings from the questionnaires. The purpose of the study is to assess the compliance of Commission of University Education (CUE) standards for library facilities in the Rongo University Library in Western Kenya. This data are discussed and presented based on the following themes; response rate, demographic details of the respondents, assessment of the library physical facilities.

4.1. Response Rate

Out of the 52 and 12 questionnaires administered to students and lectures respectively, 33 questionnaires for students and 12 for lectures were duly filled returned giving a response rate of 63.4% and 100% respectively.

4.2. Demographic Details of Respondents

The study revealed the gender of respondents as 37.5% male and 62.5% female, indicating that female library users are domineering in accessing library materials as compared to their male counterparts.
In the study the level of education was also considered to ascertain whether the level of education is commensurate with the usage of the library, 33.3% of the respondents were pursuing diploma, 41.7% bachelors, 12.5% masters and PhD respectively. This indicated that the majority of the library users were bachelors ‘students this is because there are the largest in the university population.
The findings indicated that 6 (26.1%,) respondents were 1st and 2nd years students respectively, 4 (17.4%,) were 3rd year students, and 7 (30.4%) were 4th year students. The study found out that as the students were advancing their studies the demand for library usage also increases, and the need for adequate facilities conducive for study.
The teaching staff were part of the study because they use the library for their research work, accessing electronic resources, references and lecturer notes. From the findings, 12.5% were Senior Lecturers, 25% Lecturer, 37.5% Assistant Lecturers and 25% Tutorial Fellows. The study indicated that the Assistant Lecturers were found to access and use the library more often as compared to the rest of the teaching staff.
The study further sought to determine the number of years that the lecturers had worked at the university. This information was considered important because those who had worked longer stood a better chance of giving an insight into some of the challenges facing the library in regards to availed facilities. Findings demonstrated that while 3% respondents had respectively worked at the university for less than one year, two years and three years, 9.1% and 6.1% had on the other hand respectively worked for more four years and more than 4 years.

4.3. Assessment of the Library Physical Facilities

Generally speaking, from the observation Rongo University library has put a lot of effort and resources in ensuring that the facilities are at the threshold of the CUE standards and guidelines. However, during the period of this study the library had a sitting capacity of 300 users against a student population of 6000. The library operations were divided into three sections; technical section, reader services and the digital library. Results as indicated by the majority of respondents show that the facilities in place were not conducive enough for study with a student population of 6000 and a mere library seating capacity of 300 users. Facility inadequacies are mentioned in the study by Chepkorir, Naibei and Cheruiyot (2017) who found out that, “the inadequacy of library resources, internet facilities at University of Kabianga negatively affected the quality of teaching and learning in the university.
Respondents were required to rate the library facilities at Rongo university. The responses were collected in a five-point Likert scale of strongly disagree (5), disagree (4), not sure (3), Agree (2), and strongly agree (1). From ratings given on the quality of library facilities at Rongo University, it was clear that most respondents strongly disagreed (5) that the library facilities available were of quality and adequate despite the required CUE standards. Table 2 provides the rating of the Library’s physical facilities.
Table 2. Rating of library physical facilities
A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which the library facilities complied with the CUE standards concerning ambiance of the library building with a mean of 3.71 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.039. Such a finding imply that the respondents felt that the library building ambience was not conducive for learning. Convenient for all users with special needs at a mean of 3.34 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.004, meaning that majority of respondents strongly disagreed that the library facilities were convenient for users with special needs. The findings also indicated that beside a single ramp at the entrance, the library lacked facilities and had no ICT services to cater for users with special needs. Respondents also indicated good ventilation and conducive fenestration at a mean of 3.85 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0 .906, implying that the ventilation of the library was good enough for study. Respondents also rated the sufficiency of the doorways for exit in case of an emergency at a mean 3.64 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.025. Such a result implied that the library had inadequate doorways and exit doors in case of emergency. It was also observed that the library lacked an electronic gate to safeguard the information resources. From the literature review, Omosekeji, Ijiekhuamhen and Ojeme (2015) reiterated that the information bearing materials of the library can be secured using traditional and electronic measures. Secure windows operable to external air were rated at a mean of 3.84 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.934, implying that the windows of the library were secure enough with external air. Ease of movement of users, staff and library was rated at a mean of 3.85 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.795, implying that the movement in the library was good for the users, staff. Library impression was rated at a mean of 3.44 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.1014, implying that the users were not impressed by the library. Carrels and Tables can accommodate laptops a mean of 3.58 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.795, Computer and electronic equipment are accessible in the Library a mean of 3.58 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.200 Such a rating implied that the ICT facilities in the library were not adequate for the users. It was reported that 35 computers were for students’ use, 1 for the OPAC and another 8 for use by library staff. In an earlier study by Emmanuel and Sife (2008) availability of ICT facilities enhance the accessibility of e-resources. Inadequate ICT facilities at the Rongo University Library impacts negatively on the extent to which the users can access the information resources available via the internet and more so those that the university subscribes to.
Emergency and fire safety measures a mean 3.52 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.972 Well spaced Corridors a mean of 3.39 with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.088, Uniform Ceiling heights a mean of 3.66 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.971, Ambient lighting a mean of 3.84 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.847, Such a rating implied that the lighting of the library was good enough to facilitate reading. Separate door for delivery and dispatch a mean of 3.39 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.899. Entrance and exit points for good security a mean of 3.61 with a corresponding standard deviation of 0.99. Such a finding relates to what Ahenkorah-Marfo & Borteye(2010)in their study on disaster preparedness in academic libraries recommended that there should be an emergency exit clearly and visibly marked have directional signs showing users where to pass to avoid confusion and stamped in case of an emergency.
As shown in table 3, the study made an attempt to determine if there was a correlation between spacing of corridors and the provision of sufficient doorways in case of an emergency. The results of Pearson bilateral correlation indicated that there was a strong and positive between the two valuable that was statistically significant (r=0.963; N=33, P=0.00). This suggests that incase of unforeseen fire, users and library staff can safely and quickly get away without stampedes and other hindrances.
Table 3. Correlation between the status of physical facilities, location of library Correlations
Specific attention was drawn from secure windows operable to external air had a high positive correlation (r=0.841; N=33, p=.000) with good ventilation and conducive fenestration. Indicating that users can read research and utilize library resources in a conducive environment. This finding is in support of earlier study by Cunningham and Tabur (2012), Swaris and Perera (2015) which reiterated that daylight creates an ambience of quiet tranquility and visual comfort to library user.
Likewise, Sufficient doorways for exit in case of an emergency had a significant positive correlation (r=812; N=33, p=.000) with ease of movement of users, staff and library. Consequently, users are guaranteed security and safety while using the library facility.
Further, Sufficient doorways for exit in case of an emergency had a significant moderate positive correlation (r=.664; N=33, p=000) with emergency and fire safety measures. Users and staff can easily get out safety in case of emergencies such us fire without hindrance.
In an attempt to find out how conducive the library physical facilities were among the teaching fraternity, figure 1 provides the responses whereby majority of the teaching staff strongly disagreed that the library building had good ambience, the library building was conveniently located, and that the location of the library convenient.
Table 4. Overall Rating of the library physical facilities
Figure 1. Library rating by academic staff
When asked to give the overall status of the library physical facilities, majority (33%) of respondents from the category of lecturers felt that the facilities provided were good and fair, whereas 25% indicated the facilities were very good and only 8% felt that the facilities were excellent. The study noted that most lecturers used the library facilities like the reading area only during consultation with students at specified time and only visited the library to borrow books. The study may thus not be in a position to generalize the responses given to represent all the teaching staff. When probed to give more views about the library facilities, the lectures said that management should consider expanding the library space and ensure that the teaching staff and students do not scramble for space to use the library resources. The lecturers also felt that the library should assign more resources in upscaling the ICT based facilities.

5. Conclusions and Recommendations

One of the key responsibilities of University Librarians is to be involved and be part of the technical team in the construction of a university library building for professional advice as stipulated by commission for university standards and guidelines. Such kind of advice should be on areas of physical library facilities. The findings of this study indicate that the Rongo University library is sailing in various inadequacies in terms of convenient library physical facilities and user spaces. The fact that establishment of a modern library is work in progress, the current facilities like doorways, reading areas, ICT infrastructure, and facilities for users with special needs among other areas are still wanting. The study findings show that the physical library facilities at the Rongo University library are inadequate. This implies that inadequate or lack of library facilities impact in a significant way on the information services offered which has a direct impact on the kind of support given by the library in teaching, learning and research activities of the university.
Based on the findings the study recommended that,
1. The university libraries should provide both physical and virtual spaces so that users can access information resources anywhere and at any time.
2. In coming up with plans for the University Libraries, collaboration between professional with different skills is prudent in order to provide for a wider range of facilities and services and also incorporate new developments.
3. University libraries should be inclusive in provision of adequate physical facilities for all users and especially those users with physical disabilities.


[1]  Ahenkorah-Marfo, M.and Borteye. 2010. Disaster preparedness in academic libraries: the case of the Kwame Nkrumah University of science and technology library, Kumasi, Ghana. Library & Archival Security, 23(2), 117-136.
[2]  Andrews, C., Wright, S. E., and Raskin. 2016. Library learning spaces: Investigating libraries and investing in student feedback. Journal of Library Administration, 56(6), 647-672.
[3]  Chaputula, A. H., and Mutula. 2018. eReadiness of public university libraries in Malawi to use mobile phones in the provision of library and information services. Library Hi Tech.
[4]  Commission for University Education. 2014. Standards and guidelines for University Libraries in Kenya. Available on:
[5]  Council of Australian University Librarians. CAUL, 2016. Principles and guidelines For Australian higher education libraries. available on:
[6]  Chepkorir Evalyne. 2017. Assessment of the Quality of Education in Newly Established Public Universities in Kenya: A Case of University of Kabianga. International journal of scientific and research publications, 7.
[7]  Cunningham, H. V., and Tabur. 2012. Learning Space Attributes: Reflections on Academic Library Design and Its Use. Journal of learning spaces, 1(2), No. 2.
[8]  Denscombe. 2014. The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
[9]  Emmanuel, G. and Sife. 2008. Challenges of managing information and communication technologies for educational experiences from Sokoine national agricultural library. International Journal and education and development using ICT. 4 (3).
[10]  Ifijeh. 2010. Information explosion and university libraries: Current trends and strategies for intervention. Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal, 30. wamy.pdf. on June 11.
[11]  Ijiekhuamhen, O.P., Aghojare, B., and Omosekejimi. 2015. Assess Users’ Satisfaction On Academic Library Performance: A Study Federal University of Petroleum Resources. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection, 3(5), 67-77.
[12]  Holder, S., and Lange. 2014. Looking and listening: A mixed-methods study of space use and user satisfaction. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 9(3), 4-27.
[13]  Kavulya, J. M. (2004). University Libraries in Kenia: A Study of Their Practices and Performance (Doctoral dissertation, Verlag nicht ermittelbar).
[14]  Kothari, C. R., and Garg. 2019. Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi : New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers.
[15]  Latimer, K., and Niegaard, H. (Eds.). 2007. IFLA library building guidelines: developments & reflections. Walter de Gruyter.
[16]  Majinge, R. M., and Stilwell. 2014. ICT Use in Information Delivery to People with Visual Impairment and on Wheelchairs in Tanzanian Academic Libraries. African Journal of Library, Archives & Information Science, 24(2).
[17]  Mugenda, O. M., and Mugenda. 2003. Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Nairobi: African Centre Technology Studies press (ACTS).
[18]  Nkmnebe, E.C., Udem, O.K, and Nkmnebe. 2014. Evaluation of the use of university library resources and services by the students of Paul University, Anambr State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 1-22.S
[19]  Ogbuiyi, S. U., and Okpe. 2013. Evaluation of library materials usage and services in private universities in Nigeria. Kuwait chapter of the Arabian Journal of business and management review, 33(857), 1-9.
[20]  Ogunsola. 2004. Adequate library facilities in Nigeria: A key contributor to sustainable distance education system. Journal of Social Sciences, 9(1), 23-27.
[21]  Otike, F., and Omboi. 2010. Challenges faced in establishing university libraries in Kenya.
[22]  Tiwari, B. K., and Sahoo. 2013. Infrastructure and Use of ICT in University Libraries of Rajasthan (India). Library Philosophy & Practice.
[23]  Umoh. 2017. Information and Services Provision by Academic Libraries in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Library and Information Science. 5(5): 153-159.
[24]  Wachira, M. N., and Onyancha. 2016. Serving remote users in selected public university libraries in Kenya: perspectives of the section heads. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(2), 136-146.
[25]  Weng’ua, Rotich and Kogos. 2019. The role of Kenyan Universities in promoting research and scholarly publishing. South African Journal of Libraries and information Science, Vol. 83. No.2 Available at: