International Journal of Advanced and Multidisciplinary Social Science

2018;  4(2): 23-31



Corruption, Fraud, Violence, Crime - is Nigeria a Lawless Country?: Getting, the Missing Links Straight

Osondu Chimezie Nworu

Osondu & Associates Design Architects, Nigeria

Correspondence to: Osondu Chimezie Nworu, Osondu & Associates Design Architects, Nigeria.


This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


How many Nigerians might have asked at one time or the other what is happening in this country? A country, where 95% of its news from all sources daily year round is terrifying, if it is not of crime or violence, it is of massive fraud. Where drug barons settle their differences by destroying lives of innocent people right inside church or police can arrest a man for alleged robbery, and coerced him to make a dubious confessional statement. A country wherein hate speech is idolizing in the social media, and incessant killings, kidnapping, and strange stories of deviances are the order of the day. In Nigeria, the economy and elementary social amenities are in shamble because of serious fraud, corruption, financial mismanagement of untold magnitude. And worst of all, in the history of Nigeria, no one has ever been convicted or imprisoned of any economic and financial crimes because of the much-cherished culture of impunity. Even when, fraud and corruption are exposed it looks so unrealistic that one would be wondering if it indeed occurred that was the case of the 1977 $2.8bn oil missing money or the $6.8bn fuel subsidy scam. Like the horrendous Petroleum Trust Fund N25bn fraud in 2011 and among the endless list also is the mysterious N17bn police pension fraud, etc. The real nightmare is that no one has been able to get to the root of the truth of even one of the scams as they have all remained and died as rumors till date. How many people do we have in Nigeria and how much can each one receive if any or all the missing money is shared equitably among Nigerians?

Keywords: Violence, Crime, Fraud, Corruption, Deviance, Kidnap, Impunity, Money, Johnes, Election

Cite this paper: Osondu Chimezie Nworu, Corruption, Fraud, Violence, Crime - is Nigeria a Lawless Country?: Getting, the Missing Links Straight, International Journal of Advanced and Multidisciplinary Social Science, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2018, pp. 23-31. doi: 10.5923/j.jamss.20180402.01.

1. Introduction

The British colonial government had from the onset involved Nigerians in the management of the country, Governor Girottard reporting in 1908 wrote: “the whole Protectorate was then orderly into sixteen provinces, in charge of political officers called Residents” [1]. Also in 1907, following a substantial deficit in the budget of the Protectorate there emerged a strong need to include the traditional local authorities within the British administrative structure. In this way, Nigerians had been involved in the administration of the country from the onset up to the end of the period of nationalism and decolonization that is until 1st October 1960; when Nigeria gained independence from Britain under Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa and President Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe. The primary goal of the political forces was to prepare the society for self-rule and make Nigeria become one, so also the structuring of the executive, the legislative and the judiciary was in that sense. The same concept was behind the original notion of the federalism, democracy and the rule of law that were to be perceived unitarily. Resulting in a false forced unity which allowed a few political elites and bureaucrats to continue the colonial exploits of their colonial masters who had not in any way the nationalistic interest of the nation in mind. Therefore, perpetuating the “art of divide and rule” that is the root of all the divergences political, social, economic, and development and the radix of corruption, violence, fraud, and crimes in the society. Apparently, the seed of corruption was sown then, when Nigerians started assuming responsibilities in the British administration. As an example, all the Nigerian government establishments of the period 1958/1959 like the Nigerian Airways Ltd, and the Nigerian National Shipping Line, etc., could not compete with their European counterparts throughout their lethargic lifespans as the purpose of the investments were for enriching the political elites. Even though, the rampant geopolitical intrigues of infidelity and carpet crossing of the period never resulted in political violence including elections.
In fact, the first and only peaceful national election in which people went quietly and orderly to vote conducted by a British, Ronald Edwards Wraith, as chairman of the Nigerian Federal Electoral Commission for the 1959 parliamentary and regional elections. Though this election was termed peaceful maybe because of the mandatory coalition the founding father only swallowed the bitter pill just to allow the British depart peacefully. After an uncanny electoral calculation, that declared Northern People’s Congress that had 1,922,179 votes and 25.2% a majority with 134 of the 312 seats. Notwithstanding that the other two parties the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons that had 2,594,577 plebiscites and 34.0% was awarded 81 seats and Action Group winning 1,992,364 votes 1,922,179 votes, and 25.2% had 73 seats.
Afterward, as from 1964/1965 election, all polls conducted by Nigerians in the country have been consistently marred by irregularities and unprecedented electoral violence which had undermined the democratic experiments and in extreme cases threatened the corporate existence of the nation [2]. Though corruption and electoral violence were traceable back to the then ruling class, the present vast rate of destruction, crimes, fraud, and kidnaps, etc. in today's society was unimaginable then.
Before the civil war in 1967, while the police would surely arrest a boy of 10 years for riding a bicycle that has no head light and would only be released to the parents on bail before the magistrates the next hour. In present Nigeria, the same scenario is indescribable if one can reflect on the fleets of vehicles one sees daily on Nigeria high ways at night even under heavy rainfall. Especially, those 4axle massive haul trucks without front and rear lights struggling with many tons above a full trailer load (FTL-21ton) dragging themselves through a combine police-custom-army and federal road safety corps (FRSC) checkpoints. And the drivers would prefer to dish out some cash than to use same to buy and replace the lights bulbs because even if the vehicles are in excellent condition, the persuasion to part with some money would still be there.
The practice like that of these drivers is so widespread, and that is one the missing links the paper shall underscore to arrive at the remedies, in Nigeria cannot be a lawless state.

1.1. Objective of Paper/ Methodology

The aim of the paper to critically analyze the situation and reasons that led the country into terrible endemic corruption and all sorts of crimes unimaginable even in Britain that once colonized Nigeria and is supposed to leave its legacy to it. This paper will highlight the cause of social deviance and their impacts, emphasizing on how they are being perceived in the nation arriving at identifying the possible solutions.
Also, as the reviewers of the paper rightly stated to encourage changes in specific areas for the government and to help draw attention from international scholars.

2. Understanding the Concepts Crimes and Deviance in Nigeria

2.1. Definitions from the World Bank

The paper is to highlight the impact of crime, corruption, fraud, and violence in the society and find the answers to the possible solutions. Before further, it is imperative to understand the World Bank definitions of these evil practices so common and very tolerated in Nigeria even though they affect everyone:
Fraud - A fraudulent practice is any act or omission, including a misrepresentation, that knowingly or recklessly misleads, or attempts to deceive, a party to obtain a financial or other benefit or to avoid an obligation.
Corruption - A corrupt practice is the offering, giving, receiving or soliciting, directly or indirectly, anything of value to influence the actions of another party improperly.
Collusion - A collusive practice is an arrangement between two or more parties designed to achieve an improper purpose, including influencing the actions of another party improperly.
Coercion - A coercive practice is impaired or harming, or threatening to undermine or damage, directly or indirectly, any party or the property of the individual to influence the actions of a party improperly.
Obstruction - An obstructive practice is deliberately destroying, falsifying, altering or concealing of evidence material to the investigation or making false statements to impede an investigation materially.
While the English Oxford Dictionary definitions as follows:
Crime - an action or omission which constitutes an offense and is punishable law.
Violence -
(a) Behavior involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, kill someone or something.
(b) The unlawful exercise of physical power or intimidation by the exhibition of such authority.
(c) The strength of emotion or a destructive natural force.

2.2. Understanding the Way Nigerians Perceive Financial Crime

The process of socialization is guided by norms and taught to us by those around us, including our families, teachers, and authority figures from religion, politics, law, and popular culture [3]. The norms exist, in effect only if observed, but an average Nigerian finds it's not convenient to abide and that is the big problem. While in the western world every activities is govern by law as a way of life contrary to Nigeria’s life style. For Nigerians to abandon the life style of rushing into or descending from buses among many other unpleasant habits, the military government of President Buhari to in March 1984 had to enact legislation by decree, just to instill discipline in the people. The respect of the rule of law in all things has been the Achilles heel of Nigerians even from post-independence to date. The very few Nigerians, who occupied the leadership role immediately after independence, were quick in learning the colonial master's mentality of wealth acquisition for self-aggrandizement and self-superiority. Instead of working to improve a lot of the country, they became colonial masters in a “black man’s skin” [4] neglecting moral ethics and rule of law.
Apparently, the excessive love for money introduced into the society by the post independence politicians and bureaucrats has led to extreme corruption, fraud, financial mismanagement, political, kidnapping, violence, and even domestic violence, etc. The culture of the quest for money in the society has idolized Machiavellism, in the sense that the end getting wealthy at all cost justifies the means, thereby expunging in the nation the cultural of reprimanding ill-gotten wealth.

2.3. In the Nigerian Context Jones Theory Working Negatively

The improper and widespread impunity setup in Nigeria money grabbing has made it look natural to keeping Jonesing to make quick money. Jones in sales means if your customer sees that their neighbors have bought your product or service, it's got to be worth buying! [5]. The same way the people follow perceived trends of making wealth in the country, even if the pattern is socially unacceptable, corrupt, unlawful and ungodly. It is a fact that the majority of Nigerians tend to follow perceived trends which is not bad, but when the drives are crimes and deviances, it becomes unacceptable, disastrous to the nation’s prestige, economic development, and posterity.
For example in the 1980s, when the get-rich-quickly syndrome was drug trafficking then, the order of the day was apprentices, auctioning their master's businesses for hard currencies to engage in drug trafficking. This scandal of such terrible crimes towards business and innocent entrepreneurs caused a significant public outcry that to fight the plague. The military government founded in 1990 the national drug agency which was also immediately immersed in scandal when its top people were themselves found to be involved in trafficking [6]. During the same period, erupted the threat of an advance payment scam referred to in Nigerian criminal code part 6 of Chapter 38: Obtaining Property by pretenses; Cheating - number 419 (referenced to the Nigerian colonial criminal code Sec. 419).
419 is an aged form of fraud consists of inundating innocent citizens with letters and messages, which the advent of the free internet websites made notorious. As always the case with Nigerians the scam Jones plenty youths even up to primary school pupils because of free accesses to yahoo website hence the name "yahoo boys." Many people especially teenagers left in legal jobs, trade, and schooling to become yahoo boys rubbishing the people and the name of Nigeria to the extent of forcing the military government to intervene by enacting decree 419. Furthermore, one thing peculiar to Nigeria is when any phenomenon commences, it quickly spread like wind and fire and remain endemic. Likewise, kidnapping started with the return to civilian rule was flamed by the government forces versus ethnic militia group conflict in the Niger Delta in the early 2000s. During these years there was sanguinary anarchy in the oil states of the Niger Delta region where youths who genuinely wanted the government to cede the control of the oil industry in the area were trained and equipped by rival corrupt politicians including the state governors who used them for their political purposes including kidnapping and vote rigging. Since 1999, more than 1000 Nigerians and foreigners, most of them connected to the oil industry were kidnapped for ransom, 80% abducted between 2006 and 2010 [7]. From the Niger Delta kidnapping has become a lucrative means of money making and like the wind, it has spread to the South East where at one time people had to run away from their villages and towns. Presently, no one is safe in the country as family members, some traditional rulers, Fulani herdsmen, armed robbers, and Boko Haram terrorists have all become kidnappers. And kidnapping people from all walks of life and age including homemakers is currently rampant in the country.

3. The Ambiguity of Nigeria Malpractices

3.1. Everyone in the Country is Involved in Corruption

It is empirical to observe that corruption among crimes and deviances in Nigeria is a monumental problem. No one can narrow bribery and corruption to only the high and mighty in Nigeria. It is present at all levels of the society from the low-level civil servant who will bog you down in bureaucracy unless you pay him/her a bribe to the nurse in a public clinic who will insist there are no available hospital beds until you part with some cash. Neither is corruption restricted to the public sector. Nigerians rightly complain western banks help launder stolen Nigerian money, but some Nigerian banks do the same. There is hardly an industry in Nigeria not affected by corruption [8]. There is no Nigerian that has not fallen into the temptation of corruption and bribery in one way or the other in a lifetime, even though the paper is not categorically denying the fact that is still some hard-working and honest citizen of high integrity. One thing is sure all Nigerians want to see the country bribery and corruption free hence the voting for President Buhari into the office after promising to fight corruption during his electoral campaigns. In fact, during the campaign, Buhari frequently say: “Our government will bring to an end the menace of Boko Haram terror that is plaguing the society. Nigerians are turning into refugees in their country,” and continued “What we save from the fight against corruption and leakages, we will invest heavily in education, infrastructure, equipment, and teachers. The best we can do for our generation and future generation is to give them qualitative and quantitative educational” [9]. Today in Nigeria 14.5 million people needs of humanitarian or protection assistance mostly women because of Boko Haram terrorism and only second to 22 million people of war tore Yemen [10]. Concurrently, the entire nation and the Socioeconomic Rights and Accountability Project (SERAP) has been urging in vain the EFCC as well as the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses Commission (ICPC) to investigate the alleged $26bn oil contract scam in the NNPC [11]. It looks platitudinous, but veracious to state that everyone in Nigeria is involved in corruption including the Diasporas as the temptation starts from the point of entries, i.e., Airports, also for the fact that the prebendalism of previous parties in government is still in vogue. Nigeria's quagmire is traceable to the unfaithfulness of average Nigerian to the national pledge and interest. Greed, indiscipline, corruption, impunity, nepotism, bribery and pervasive mentality towards life have become abject manifestations of our attitude. Keith Harrel defined comportment as the outward reflection of what resided in the individual as such attitude is a reflection of character [12]. The problem also is integrity, credibility, and reliability of people at all levels and no one cares including the government to address the issues of the character of people before appointments in a position of authorities.

3.2. Too Many Formal and Informal Corruptions for a Nation

Corruption is widespread and is of every sort, within the anti-corruption agencies, white- collar corruption, looting government treasure, ghost workers or payroll fraud, unlawful oil block shearing and sales, persistent oil contract scams and rampant bribery in the tertiary institutions, etc.
And among the long list of the informal corruption are the infamous advance fee scam called 419, companies tax evasion, bunkering, oil theft, gas flare, insider dealing, bank thefts, coercion, and extortion, bribing INEC officials, and political violence, etc. The list is endless and virtually impossible to enlist all for there is no form of crime and deviance that has ever existed in this world that is not in practice in Nigeria. The reason is the general apathy to corruption in the country, even when there occur massive looting of the government coffers that supposed to cause a revolt. Besides, there is a diffused sense of being marginalized within the ethnic groups which are the primary reasons for the impunity; hence the public indifference to financial crimes and corruption as every ethnic group would protect its indigene in a position of power no matter what he or she does. For this reason, there cannot be a revolution of the people in Nigeria because of this phenomenon of divide and rule game of people in authority.
Thus the people face reality in hopelessness as such can only opting for resilience as no solution is coming fort from the succeeding governments. Exacerbating the public desperation is also the severe failure of the justice system that annuls capacity of any administration to bring succor to the masses, thereby furthering impoverishment of the broader population that is above 70% living below the poverty line [14]. Indeed, no Nigeria home and abroad is unperturbed by the far-reaching implication of these various crimes and deviance on the people, economy, development, infrastructures, name, and prestige of the nation among many others. The level of deterrence of the malpractices is profoundly high as they undermine the democratic process, lower the national average life expectancy, and weaken the Naira and standard of education. Diminishing education standard is very evident in almost all the country’s private universities that are full of under aged lecturers who treat undergraduates as secondary school students in boarding houses; thereby breeding naïve graduates. The national assembly has to enact a unique and severe federal code of conduct and behavior for lectures in all the nations’ universities as they are not capable of governing the corrupt and immoral excesses of their lecturers.
Evidently, in every area of life and at all levels, corruption, crimes, and deviances have become so deceivingly ordinary that it is now mistaken in the society to be conventional and natural like malaria that the people treat with levity. But this does not annul the fact that malaria remains the world most important parasitic disease of public health importance and as Nigeria also has the ambition to achieve malaria elimination [15], so too is the eradication of corruption the dream of every Nigerian. Consequently, the presidency must critically analyze and reform the financial management of the government and terminate impunity of corrupt people to reduce corruptions and crimes starting from denying ex politically exposed individuals undergoing corruption cases political appointments.

4. The Impact Assessment of Crime and Deviance

It is empirical that crime, in general, is inevitable in any society as not every member of the society pledges to collective consciousness in an equal manner. And that there are crimes in other countries does not justify the Nigeria crime high incidence. What makes crimes in Nigeria peculiar is the strong self-assurance of impunity of the personalities committing them whether the offense is fraud, corruption, financial crime, kidnapping, energy supply crisis, political killing, and electoral violence, etc. In short no Nigerian irrespective of his/her position or profession be it legal, religious, and political is presuming above committing a financial crime. Apparently, crimes and corruption pervade to all level of government in Nigeria, causing a massive strain on public resources and eroding citizen trust and confidence in the system [16]. That is the reason Nigeria perturbs the industrialized countries and international bodies. And for this same reason, the agencies found it difficult working with the Nigerian establishments because of lack of confidence. Even in the society lack of reciprocating trust is destroying doing business relationships and ruining the overall economy.
Hence the World Bank Group has stepped up its efforts to engage with governments, private sector and citizens in managing integrity also within the people and governance-related risks with an emphasis on strengthening systems, promoting transparency and a clearly-defined accountability standard as well as mechanisms for reporting fraud and corruption [17]. Nigeria also needs mass orientation programs to encourage nationalism and sense of duty to the country. For example, it is no senses of moral commitment for EFCC going on behalf of a bank to arrest an entrepreneur for an overdraft or a girl inviting police or army officer to beat a boyfriend to death because of marginal issues. How can one laugh where angels are crying? Even, President Johnathan was alleged saying that most of what is referring to as corruption is no more than ‘common stealing’ though apparent “over 70%” of cases now relate to theft of public funds, not bribery and other such offenses [18]. In fact, Nigeria is a place where any petty thief if caught will immediately have a car tire on his or her neck and set on fire while ‘common stealing,’ of the public fund in billions of Naira goes scot free.

5. The Ways to Curbing Crimes, Corruption, and Deviances and Reducing Impunity

The Nigerian government was the first in Africa to join the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and has on many occasions benefited from the organization. A good example was the 2008 NEITI's Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) epic audit report that resulted in the recovery of $2.4 billion of the oil sales lost to the revenue [17]. In combating corruption and crime, Nigeria state receives aid and active support from various foreign nations and international organizations. In fact, Nigeria has alliances with many international bodies including the International Corruption Hunters Alliance and LAC Regional Parliamentary Network, Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency, Open Contracting Standard, Asset Disclosure practices and the Open Government Partnership. Others are the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, the Financial Accountability Task Force, and the OECD Anti-Corruption Task Team and recently the EU-funded contract to manage the Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption (RoLAC) project in Nigeria, etc.
Regardless of investigation technical support from many nations, governments and non- government organizations Nigeria is still far from neither curbing the crimes nor reducing impunity.
Furthermore, Nigeria has endorsed and is part of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and is a signatory to both the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the Economic Community of West African States Protocol on the fight against Corruption which persists.
The primary reason for not achieving significant success in combating the crimes is due to the people in charge. Imagine, the chairman of nation’s foremost anti-graft agency Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), told an audience in Abuja that “stealing" is erroneously reported as corruption even by “educated” Nigerians [18]. Even the loudest anti-graft agency EFCC has only succeeded in achieving sensational arrests often also illegal arrests against court orders. Since its inception, EFCC has not been able to gain one court conviction of any ex politically exposed persons and bureaucrats it has arrested due to lack of skills and knowledge to investigate cases properly before carrying illegal arrests to show off thoroughly.
A personality worthy emulating just as the saying “Great leader don’t set out to be a leader, but set out to make a difference.” The Director-General of EFCC should follow the modus operandi of the late Mrs. D. Akunyili who when she was appointed in April 2001 the Director General of National Agency for Food and Drug to combat the menace of falsified and substandard medicines or fake drugs in the country.
Within four years at the helm of NAFDAC, She successfully exterminated the influences of criminals and fraudsters in the nation’s drug manufacturing industry and saved lives of Nigeria who were dying on mass because of fake drugs. The people of Nigeria are tired of these various nefarious crimes and violence including frauds etc., and if the government wants to combat the transgressions it has only to put the right persons at the helm of the affairs; if possibly follow the example of the British government. That appointed Mr. Mark J. Carney, a Canadian economist the Governor of the Bank of England the nation’s central bank. The Nigerian government can do the same by hiring foreigners from any part of the world to occupy strategic positions for what matters most is the capacity to achieve the goals required and better the lots of the masses. The Nigerian government should not hesitate to reform or disband any outdated and none performing agencies like EFCC, and ICPC, etc. Experience has taught that whenever an enforcement body or organization no matter the reason behind its establishment gets to the point, it can now be called by banks on customers, landlords on tenants, wife on a husband, friend on friend owning him/her money those are the indications to disband the body or agency. In Nigerian context, it means that the organization has lost proper control at the top and 'touting' has taken over and many government parastatals currently operate by touts.
That was precisely the case when the anti-crime Bakassi Boys group came to the scene in eastern Nigeria in early 2000. At first, they received a resounding welcome from the locals who were fed up with the high rate of crime, corruption, and incompetence of the police who were supposed to fight it. But later doubts started emerging. The Bakassi have spread their role into areas of social and political control: they enforce debt payment, they chastise women who stray in marriage, and they menace critics of the governors [19]. The disbanding of the Bakassi vigilante group came when it began engaging in unnecessary disputes that usually led to intimidations and extrajudicial killing.

6. Modern Slavery and the Parallel Violence

6.1. Domestic Servitude: Is Nigeria a Victim?

Nigeria is superficially a religious country, but very few individuals are presumably godly, the culture of having maid starts from time immemorial generally within the distant family circle in most cases to enhance a better relationship. The destruction of this family order came during the post-independence era when the Nigerian colonial masters in a “black man’s skin” [4] took over the colonial master's quarters including the servants who they had no relationship with, in most cases not even tribal relationship. Therefore, it became the trend among the new elites the mania to possessing servants as status quo in the society, thereby changing the relationships order from brotherly to master or mistress versus servant mode of hard-treatment even when the blood relationship was involved. The worsening of the new trend came about in the 1970s oil boom when a secondary school leaver placed on first salary scale level 04 can with first payment rent a room, buy furniture, pots, spoons, cups, carpet, a fan, and sent for a housemaid from relatives in the village. In the 1970s, as soon as one finishes university the next thing was to buy a car and get a domestic help.
Currently, in the face of a hard economy and the general spirit to survive at all cost housemaids have become a burden and condemned to the life of servitude, violence, brutality, slavery and, even sexual abuses practiced by husband and wife altogether with the participation of the children sometimes.
The government should be committed to sound policies to stop engaging domestic servants as if still in the 19th century, but through employment policy to end maltreatment. The matter of fact is that the results of internal violence are mostly hidden, invisible lasting and can be irreparably harmful to health and posterity. Usually, the trauma lasts a lifetime and kept hidden and therefore difficult to cure. And in a place like Nigeria of no health facilities who talks of healing domestic violence traumas, where most politicians are only interested in making money, merriments and appointing their sisters "commissioners for Happiness".

6.2. Contemporary Slavery: Is Nigeria a Victim too?

The term "trafficking in persons" is restricted to instances of deceiving people, threatening, or coercing into situations of exploitation, including prostitution. That contrasts, with "human smuggling," in which a migrant purchases services to circumvent immigration restrictions, but is not necessarily a victim of deception or exploitation [20]. The above occurrences are rife in the most detestable brutal forms in Nigeria.
As it is still the praxis from the time of industrial revolution in 1760, the developed countries at a time of economic distress will always bring in migrants to keep their economies afloat. Between the recessionary phase of the early 1980s and that of the beginning of the 1990s, the developed world enjoyed an exceptionally long period of economic growth and stability accompanied by much higher integration [21]. During this period Italy witnessed one of its worst political crises since the end WWII that was on the verge of overturning the economy for lack of unskilled workers. The various national coalition governments were always collapsing at an average of every four months because of political party infighting. Besides, the entire social incognito associated to the “Clean Hands” corruption investigation led by the group of Milan prosecutors. That swept away the entire political class including many times ex-prime ministers Giulio Andreotti and Bettino Craxi, who were the most brilliant minded politicians that any country can have.
The two primary sectors of the economy, agriculture, and the small scaled industries lacked unskilled labor and were at the point of crippling the entire national economy. Italy had a law, then that restrained strangers from working in the country and was forced by the need for unskilled labor to change first by giving the millions of students in the nation a six months per year working permit. As the number of international students in the country, could not contribute significantly to revitalizing the industrial and agricultural sectors the political parties knowing the dire consequences of the threatening economic disaster had to relax the old discriminatory work law.
Also, every Italian was keenly aware of the striking need for unskilled labor in the country and as no party wants pro-immigrants tagging mostly because of a new political movement then called the North League.
Hence, the government did not want to directly manage the immigration influx for fear to exasperating Italian voters who are mainly nationalists. The procedure adopted was to allow immigrants to come in by any means creating rooms for unscrupulous people to enlist in the immigrant influx through trafficking networks recruitments from Ghana, Nigeria, Algeria and later India, Tunisia, Senegal, and Morocco, etc. As is usual, with the unscrupulous people they will always turn every opportunity into a lucrative business. The same trafficking networks from recruiting men labor force stated recruiting women and children to exploit for money and sex; as the trafficking in persons, especially towards Equatorial Guinea had been already widespread and thriving in the West African region in the 1980s.
Initially, the traffickers concentrated their activities mainly to the South of Nigeria capitalizing on the marginalization of the south especially the East by the military. However what made Edo state in the South-Central part of the country the real hub for trafficking between Nigeria and Europe as almost 80% of the women involved are from Edo is the Jones theory phenomenon that always accompanies every Nigerian occurrence. For the same Jonesing reason, the majority of the youth dying daily in Chad, Niger, Mali, Libya and the Mediterranean seas are from the South East of Nigeria as they are inborn keen traders and travelers. There is no remotest part of the world you cannot find an Ibo person even in the North and South poles. Hence, the reason the victims of the human trafficking are mainly Ibos and Edo women.
In the past two decades, there is no Mediterranean Sea death toll from the Italian or Libyan coastguards that have not at least a Nigerian among the dead. No matter what, the federal and the state governments should rehabilitate the Libyan returnees who were victims of Libyan slave trade and are the indications of the failure of Nigerian previous corrupt, naïve and heartless governments which left the masses to drift into hopelessness.

6.3. The Issue of Corruption Constitutes Development Challenges

It is evident that corruption poses a serious development challenge to Nigeria especially in the area of sustainable economic growth and good governance. In the political realm, corruption undermines democracy and good governance by subverting every formal process. Corruption in elections and legislative bodies reduces fairness, accountability and fair representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary undermines or prevents the rule of law, and corruption in public administration leads to different provision of services. More generally, corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government as procedures are more often disregarded, resources are siphoned off, and officials are hired or promoted without regard to performance merit. At the same time, corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance in the country [22]. In Nigeria, if bribery and corruption are taken to be akin to malaria, in the sense that both are endemic plagues taken so lightly by the society; so also is domestic slavery tolerated as a culture.
Housemaid and migration have always been a way to escape famine, poverty, persecution, and unemployment in all cases including Nigerians. As a matter of fact "Niger is next to Nigeria, Nigeria is six times richer, and there are no border controls, but Niger is not depopulating. Sweden is six times richer than Romania, the EU permits free movement, but Romania is not depopulating either." Even strong economic incentives are often not enough to tempt us to leave home [23]. All that people need to stay home and stop migrating is for the government to substantially reduce corruption, all types of crime and violence and meticulous practice good governance in the Nigeria state.

7. Fighting a Good Fight

Apparently, an average Nigerian claims to be a good and practicing Christian or Muslim, but watching him or her one would hardly find a real demonstration of the fruit of the spirit, which are love, joy, peace, goodness, faith, etc., in the person. The issue is godliness, for they would never practice like the Holy Spirit inspired Apostle Paul saying “if we live in the spirit, let us also walk in the spirit” [13]. An average Nigerian politician or top bureaucrat is cultic obviously as Satan, and his minions hate the Lord God and human beings with passion invariably there is no way they can love their people and work for them in fear of God. The question is to keep the faith, just as in the Nigeria of 1907s, the governor-general wrote in Bornu the countryside was being devastated, and the population exterminated, by Zubehr's cruel lieutenant, Rabeh. In the south, cannibalism, slave dealing, witchcraft, and trial by ordeal were rife. In no direction were native traders, even when traveling within their provinces, safe from the murderous attack of organized robber bands and their chiefs [1]. Evidently, 111 years after, as today the present leaders still organize with their cohorts to rob the nation billions of Naira. As suicide bombing attacks in and around Bornu, including armed robbery, cannibalism, witchcraft, rituals, cultism, human trafficking, etc. still, persist and are rife at all levels and everywhere in the country.
How can the nation have good governance when no one is ready to fight the good fight by keeping the faith as Apostle Paul did? It is a fact that the improvement in Nigeria’s poor quality of governance is direly needed as is known that only those who rule over their people in righteousness and fear of God can acquire the skill to successfully manage the cultural pluralism and diversity of their nation from any position of authority. Including leadership, political, civil service, arm forces, police, etc., for in Nigeria people in power do not devote time to thinking of the people.

8. Conclusions

Sir Winston Churchill was talking to the British parliament as to Nigeria saying there’s a time for everyone to stand up and be counted” and put “the country before money.” Nigeria has extraordinary infinite peculiar numbers that no one should be allowed to tarnish the country's prestige against making quick money. Nigeria in Africa has the largest market for all products and services and the most populated, also the largest oil producer even though is full of Dutch disease; thus it has the most significant annual budget and revenue in Africa. Though beauty is relative Nigerian cities and towns, even villages are better built at least in structures than in any other African nation. Nigeria is better positioned also in human resources etc.
As already mentioned the list of the country endowed blessings is un-ending as such every Nigerian should be aware of the adverse effect of corruption, high rate crimes, and deviances to the country’s name, people, development, economy, international trade including investment attractiveness, etc.
Nigerians in Diaspora are estimated to be between 5 million to 20 million, categorically they contribute immensely to the nation's treasure, and according to the world bank’s top Remittance-Receiving Countries, 2015 report Nigeria is classified 6th with 20.8 US$ billion [24]. As such, it is not appropriate that the high rate of corruption and crime in the country should adversely affect Nigerians who have migrated to foreign countries, as foreigners have the perception that since Nigeria is corrupt, so are all Nigerians [25]. Undoubtedly, immigration is benefitting the host countries as well as the immigrants and their various countries, besides presenting the migrants the opportunities of being good ambassadors of the countries of origin. So those in Nigeria should take control and good care of the fund in the coffers of the nation left in their care and not be aggravating crimes, corruptions, distrusts and shady characters that mortify the Diasporas and the world at large. How are they living happily in their homes?, the nation's 109 Senators and a 360 House of Representatives who go home each month with an average of N12.5 million or more as revealed by the former President, Olusegun Obasanjo. While the youths of their constituencies due to unemployment are perishing in the Sahara desert, Mediterranean seas and in this 21st century are being used as sex workers and sold as slaves in Libya. And some members of the national assembly are even not ashamed to write books on corruption; who knows if this is the reason a world leader in a conversation with the Queen of England described Nigeria as “fantastically corrupt.” Otherwise, how can one explain what is happening in the turned money making national assembly? The key to the thrive on corruption in Nigeria is excessive greed and lust for money, as an average Nigeria is not content to be well to do but wants the affluence. And those who have succeeded in having the cash in overabundance do not invest in the country but do go abroad to squander the money and so help us, God.
•‘…To God Be the Glory


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