International Journal of Advanced and Multidisciplinary Social Science

2018;  4(1): 13-22



Closing the IDPs Camps in Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria: What Option for the Internally Displaced Persons?

Abdulkarim Umar, Abeeb Mohammed Abideen, Idriss Yusuf

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Nigeria

Correspondence to: Abdulkarim Umar, Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Nigeria.


Copyright © 2018 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


This research was carried out with the view of determining the effects of the closure of the internally displaced person’s camps in North-Eastern Nigeria on the displaced persons themselves. Displacements are generally caused by several factors such as communal conflict, natural disasters, development-based projects or insurgency as the case with the North-Eastern Nigeria’s displacement. The IDP’s camps in the North-Eastern Nigeria were as results of the activities of Boko Haram insurgency which led to the unprecedented mass displacement of thousands of people across Nigeria and North East in particular. Government deem it appropriate at this point after securing the lost territories and restoring normalcy to the areas to some extent to close the camps and order the people to return to their original areas. This research examines whether the camps are due for closure and to ascertain the willingness of the people to return to their localities. A survey research design was adopted where a sample of five hundred respondents were selected through simple random sampling procedure following multi-stage cluster sampling. The results shows that, the people were willing to return to their villages as they did not believe that, remaining in the camps at the time after the successes recorded over the Boko Haram insurgents will be of advantage.

Keywords: Insurgency, Conflicts, Boko Haram, Internally Displaced Persons, Camps

Cite this paper: Abdulkarim Umar, Abeeb Mohammed Abideen, Idriss Yusuf, Closing the IDPs Camps in Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria: What Option for the Internally Displaced Persons?, International Journal of Advanced and Multidisciplinary Social Science, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2018, pp. 13-22. doi: 10.5923/j.jamss.20180401.03.

1. Introduction

Internal displacements of persons (IDPs) is today a major global vocabulary which is an issue that has become a subject of great concern. It is indeed certain that internal displacements are cause by one or more of the following: (a) Armed conflicts: where large scale attacks are involved using in most cases sophisticated weapons (b) Generalized violence: this is a kind of violence of low intensity in comparison to the first category as stated by Geneva conventions and their additional protocols I & II. (c) Natural and man-made disaster: this usually results from factors like climate change, which can be rapid or slow in onset. (d) Human rights violations: this kind of displacements occur as a result of attacks that have been deliberately targeting certain populations which may necessitated them to flee in search of safety, for instance the case of Rohingya people of Myanmar. (e) Development and environmental protection: some development projects may cause displacements of population in the areas of the projects such as dam projects, (Aspler, 2013). Displacements are indeed a serious and persistent problem particularly in Africa despite the continuous effort by governments of the countries to solve the problems causing internal displacements. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2017) observed that in Africa alone more than 3.9 million were displaced by the end of 2016 which reveals the gravity of internal displacements going on in the continent leading to a situation where a total of 12.6 million persons were affected by displacements in various countries in Africa. Although all types of displacements plays a significant role in Africa’s internal displacements, however displacements caused by conflicts seems to account for a larger percentage. Conflicts caused up to 70% of the internal displacements in Africa while Africa’s displacements account for 40% percent of global displacements (IDMC, 2017).
Nigeria is one the countries of Africa that witnessed serious internal displacements of the highest order in the recent past emanating from conflict particularly the Boko Haram insurgency. The insurgency led to the formation of the internally displaced persons camps (IDPs Camps) more especially in the North-Eastern region seen as the birth place of Boko Haram. The research was thus conducted with the view to determine the issues and challenges of closing the internally displaced person’s camps as proposed by the government of Yobe State, Nigeria. The government believed that the camps were due for closure taking in to cognizance the improved security situation in the areas affected by the insurgency in the state. However, do the internally displaced persons have similar opinion? Has the government put in place the basic requirements for the process? Can the present security situation warrant the closure of the camps and the return of the people? Can assistance reach them while they are no longer in the camps?
According to International Committee of the Red Cross (2009) the major causes of displacement in Africa as in other parts of the world are of course manifold and complex. Quiet apart from natural disasters and development –induced displacements, in most cases the root cause of displacements are those that have triggered or at least contributed to armed conflicts or situation of violence, poverty, effects of climate change, scarcity of resources, political instability, weak governance and justice system may all be catalyst for conflict-induced displacements. These same factors hampers the end of displacements and make the task of rebuilding lives and restoring livelihoods of persons affected by displacements more difficult. In this regards the ICRC (2009) further states that, it is a welcomed development where humanitarian law prohibits attacks on civilians, their properties, indiscriminate attacks, starving of civilians as a method of warfare or destroying things believed to be indispensable to their survival. It should be emphasized that any party in armed conflict is prohibited from armed compelling civilians to flee their homes. The humanitarian laws once fully respected, is certain that displacements can be prevented, however, there is the need to make it mandatory on the states not to only protect and assist the displaced persons with relief materials, but to as well prevent displacements.
Mooney (2005) states that internal displacements exposes its victims to serious risk of discrimination, abuse and neglect. Human displacements should therefore be considered as a potential vulnerability of civilian population. Persons considered as IDPs are in fact neglected group which informed the need for regular assessment of their needs at various levels of displacements (during displacement, at the camps during return or resettlement and after return). It should however be noted that IDPs should not be used as target groups to access protection and assistance programmes which indeed stipulates the needs for assessment with the view of identifying the vulnerable groups. Mooney (2005) further states that the IDPs are vulnerable groups due the following factors:
× The internally displaced persons may be in transit from one place to another, may be in hiding place, and may also be forced to move forward.
× The social organization of displaced groups may have been destroyed or damaged as a result of displacement, families may have been separated, and women may be forced in to roles traditionally not considered women’s roles.
× Members of the internally displaced population such as the children, the elderly and pregnant women may particularly face psychological distress related to the displacement.
× As a result of the IDPs removal from their main sources of income and means of livelihood may increase their psychological and physical vulnerability.
× The educational process for their children may be significantly disrupted
× Where the displaced persons moved to areas of unfriendly or unhospitable communities, their risks may likely increase and may lead to more difficulties.
× The internally displaced persons may lack identification necessary to enjoy legal recognition and other benefits.
Similarly the World Bank (2013) recommends sustainable livelihood programs for the IDPs beyond focusing on housing to include issues like: (i) access to land which will enable them to engage in farming activities during their stay as IDPs and indeed even for those who may want to stay permanently in the host communities, (ii) financial services: which will give them the opportunity to carry out their business activities in the their host communities by making them more independent even as IDPs (ii) social capital: where connections between individuals and entities can be that are economically valuable can be established, (iii) skills : to enable the members of the internally displaced persons (IDPs) acquire gainful skills that will make self-reliant even after the current situation of being displaced (iv) knowledge: to ensure that their children are educated even though they might have been highly disorganized by the displacement. This will help them maintain distance with illiteracy and (v) psychosocial issues: which should be directed at those IDPs that are extremely vulnerable by ensuring that the trauma they experienced has been fully neutralized. However, IDPs protection continue to remain under the protection of the states in which they are displaced (Cohen 2004, OCHA 2004, and UNHRC 2007). As a result the protection of IDPs lie in conflict with notions of state sovereignty. Therefore under the umbrella of sovereignty some states have violated human rights, denied protection to IDPs and barred international assistance to IDPs in their territories (Cohen and Deng 1998, Weiss and Korn 2006).
The magnitude of displacements that occurred in some of the countries in Africa including Nigeria is presented on the table below signifying the need for solution to these problems taking in to cognizance the causes. It is clear that most of the displacements originated from armed conflicts which involves ethnic conflicts, religious conflicts and indeed political conflicts which in Africa are the major cause of internal displacements.
Table 1. Displacements caused by conflicts and disasters in these countries of Africa 2009-2016
However, general displacements of people across the continent of Africa also varies with the years and the cause of the displacements which is depicted by the table below.
Table 2. Displacements caused by conflicts and disasters in Africa 2009-2016

2. Who are the Internally Displaced Persons?

The guiding principles of internal displacements, Kampala conventions states that internally displaced persons are persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflicts, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human made disaster and who have not crossed an internationally recognized border, (Aspler, 2013). It can also refer to persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of large scale development projects and who have not crossed an internationally recognized border, (Cohen, (2004). The internally displaced persons are not accorded same legal status with the refugees, but has to do with individuals factual circumstances, simply persons who were forced to flee their homes irrespective of the cause but remain under the jurisdiction of their countries. In fact Crisp (1999) observed that it’s a common practice among people and some newspapers to interchangeably use the term internally displaced persons and refugees as the same thing. Martin (1995) defined internally displaced persons as those who have been forced to leave their homes and sources of livelihood but are still within the borders of their country undergoing violent internal conflicts.

3. Statement of the Research Problem

The research primarily intends to establish the issues, the challenges and effects associated with the closure of IDPs Camps, following the gradual return of peace in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria. The research particularly focuses on Yobe State. The fact remains that the IDPs Camps going by the condition of their formation, were never made to stand permanently. This is obvious with the temporary nature of the type of shelter provided, the locations of the Camps, where many are in structures that are meant for different purposes such as schools, secretariats, etc, thereby displacing the purposes for which those structures were meant for. There is a critical problem and confusion here because alternative permanent structures have not been provided for the displaced owners of the structures. Therefore, this arrangement stands temporary and importantly, the vivid temporality of these Camps and the corresponding regain of peace necessitate the intention of the governments to close the Camps. The issue of great concern is to ascertain the willingness of the IDPs to leave the Camp environment which they appear to be used to now to another that requires a re-beginning of life all over again. In the same vein, there are a lot of relief packages reaching the IDPs especially from the governments and NGOs, can such continue with the closure of the Camps, and/or are there feasible alternative arrangements in the event those packages are to terminate. The guarantee of the security of the lives and property of the people in the places the IDPs return to is of great concern. Most empirical studies focused on displacements especially on the causes and the effects. However, little or no attention is given to the IDPs camps closure. The pressing need to provide empirical findings on the IDPs camps closure especially on the associated issues, challenges and effects justifies the bases for this research.

4. Objectives of the Research

The displacement of many people particularly in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria by the Boko Haram insurgency has no doubt led to the emergence of IDPs Camps in many states in the region especially Borno and Yobe states. However, the gradual return of peace in these states has nurse the intention of the governments of the states to close the IDPs Camps to enable the people return to their places of origin finally. In this regard the research is built on the following objectives;
a) To assess whether the Camps were really due for closure at the time of their closure
b) To ascertain the willingness and readiness of the IDPs to return to their places of origin
c) To examine the security situation of the places, towns and/or villages where the IDPs return and settle finally
d) To assess the facilities put in place to attract or motivate the IDPs to return to their original residences and stay
e) To establish the effects of the closure of the camps both in the short and long run
f) To provide basic recommendations especially to the government and other organizations concerned, based on the findings of the research

5. Research Questions

Based on the Statement of problem and the research objectives the following questions are fundamental;
a) Are the IDPs Camps due for closure based on the reasons for their formation?
b) Are the IDPs really willing to return to their places of origin?
c) Is the security situation in the places they return to adequate?
d) Are the basic facilities for rehabilitation, reintegration and resettlement in place?
e) What are the issues, challenges and effects associated with the closure of the Camps?
f) How useful are the findings of the research to the government, people and community?

6. Research Hypotheses

Based on the stated problems that justify the purpose of the research, the following hypotheses are fundamental;
HO1: Camps closure will not lead to improvement in the living condition of the IDPs
Ha1: Camps closure will lead to improvement in the living condition of the IDPs
HO2: Majority of the IDPs are not willing to return
Ha2: Majority of the IDPs are willing to return

7. Scope of the Research

Insurgency is no doubt a fundamental security threat in Nigeria and other countries of the world. The states in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria are worse affected by the Boko Haram insurgency, especially Borno and Yobe States. Based on this, the research intends to cover all sites of the IDPs Camps in Yobe State, however, some of the camps are not recognized by government as they were just formed by the IDPs who fled their origins to settle t places they considered safe. This research covered both the government recognized and the unrecognized camps with the view of understanding whether the closure is in order or what option was available to them. Moreover, it will cover a period from 2009 – 2017. The reason for this scope is to ensure comprehensive result/findings from the research.

8. Significance of the Research

In general, no research is relevant and worth doing without weighing its significance to people, organizations, communities, the society and country at large. The research, if successfully completed, shall be of great use to the government of Yobe state and Nigeria at large. This is because it will provide comprehensive facts, figures and information on the issues, challenges and effects that arise as a result of the closure of IDPs Camps. It will in that light guide the government in justifying the closure decision, and /or even polishing it further for easy execution. It will further guide towards addressing the challenges and effects therein.
The research shall be of useful to the people of Yobe state and beyond by educating and informing them accordingly about the good things the closure of the camps has for them as they return to their places of origin. This no doubt shall allow peace to reign and in the same vein facilitate the IDPs acceptance of the intention of the government to resettle them finally. Furthermore, the research will be very useful to the society at large because the closure of the camps shall make them understand that, it is again possible for people who were separated for long by the insurgency to be reintegrated again and reclaim their assets such as farmlands, plantations, titles, etc.
The research shall also be useful to the NGOs as it could help in providing them with first-hand information that can enable them to put in more strategies towards the accomplishment of their missions on the IDPs. To the academicians and other researchers, the research will produce a reference material which will serve as an important guide in conducting further research on same area or other similar areas.

9. Effects of the Closure of IDPs Camps

Displaced persons camp is a temporary facility for people forced to flee their homes and when such camps are officially closed, it is expected that the IDPs, the camp officials and agencies providing support to the IDPs in the camp will no longer be operating in the camp again. As observed by JRS (2010), IDPs camps were officially closed in Liberia in April 2006 which marked the end of the return process of almost 320,000 IDPs. It has been established that even with the closure of the camps some IDP members remain in the camps. JRS (2010) further pointed out that certain categories of people remain in the camps even after the closure. The first category is the former IDPs who were interested in settling in the host communities near the camps while others were those who want to turn the camps in to new local communities. It is in line with UN Guiding Principles on IDPs, displaced persons should return voluntarily (Principle 28-1). By this principle no IDP should be forced out of the camp in the name of closure. The second group involved those who have not been able to return home, due to reasons best known to them. The last group is that of the local residents whom as a result of the closure of the camp moved in to the camp and settle there. Additionally some IDPs that have returned home return to the camp to continue with the camp live.
Some of the reasons identified for remaining in the camp according to JRS (2010) include:
a) Intermarriages
b) Proximity to the basic social services such as health facilities, water and educational facilities among others
c) Absence of family ties in the return areas as most of them might have probably lost their live during the displacement
Such stay are also accompanied by a number of challenges since the camps have been officially closed, these challenges include;
a) Withdrawal of assistance by governmental and humanitarian agencies / NGOs
b) Security protection will no longer be provided like in the days when the camps were not closed
c) Land problems may also be another challenge as they may have problems with the local community.
d) Relationship with the local communities will continue to remain a major challenge.
According to Sudan Democracy First Group (2016) in the last few months of 2015, there has been increase in violence against civilians in Darfur and observed that the government was about to commit another major crime in its determination to dismantle the internally displaced persons camps and push out the U.N and A.U mission. This was because the time for IDPs camps closure was not due and therefore government insistence was a gross violation of the IDPs rights and the guidelines on internally displaced persons which grant the IDPs basic humanitarian assistance (food, medicine, shelter), the right to be protected from physical violence, the right to education, freedom of movement and residence, maintain their political and civil participation rights.

10. Methodology

This researchers employed survey research method in the collection and gathering of data, i.e. the use of interview and questionnaire. Questions were designed which contain specific relevant questions to elicit information from respondents on the issues, challenges and effects of camp closure on Internally Displaced Persons in Yobe State. This provided us with the primary data required for the research. Secondary data was be obtained from newspapers, Journals, periodicals, magazines, textbooks, reports and internet.
The population of Yobe State which according to Nigeria National Population Commission census, 2006 was about 2,321291 is the focus of the research. It is one of the three most affected states in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria placed next to Borno State with respect to Boko Haram destruction. Yobe state which is the focus of this research is located in the North-Eastern part of Nigeria. The state shares international borders with Niger Republic to the north, and within the country shares boundaries with Jigawa and Bauchi states to the west, Gombe state to south and Borno state to the east. This is the location of the research.
Figure 1. Map of Nigeria showing Yobe State
Figure 2. Map of Yobe state of showing the 17 local governments
The population of Yobe state of about 2,321291 as at 2006 is obviously too large for this research, therefore, a sample of this population has to be selected to ensure a thorough research. Based on this, the sample taken for this research work was 500 respondents spread across ten (10) out of the seventeen (17) Local Government areas of the state intended to be covered by the research were purposefully selected. That is fifty respondents were drawn from each of the ten local governments. The ten local government areas were carefully selected from the three Senatorial Districts of the state; Zones “A”, “B” and “C” respectively considering the subject matter of the research. Four local governments from Zone “A” which include Damaturu, Gujba, Gulani and Geidam, three local governments from Zone “B” which include Fika, Fune and Potiskum while the remaining three were from Zone “C” including Nguru, Bade and Jakusko. The collection of data, was done using questionnaire which was distributed to respondents to get necessary data from them while interview was conducted to selected individuals and groups within the society. The analysis of data was done using frequency, percentages, and tabulations and involve the use of Chi-Square test in order to interpret and bring out meaningful information from the data based on the subject matter of the research.

11. Discussion of Results and Hypothesis Test

Questionnaire designed to gather information on the challenges and effects of IDPS camp closure in Yobe state, five hundred (500) questionnaires were distributed, four hundred and fifty six were returned which represents 91% while forty four (44) were not returned and represents 9% of the questionnaire.. The distribution and returned question and the percentages is shown in table 3, below:
Table 3, the respondents were asked whether they have relatives in the camps, majority (49.6%) said yes they have other relations in the camp, while (50.4%) said they do not have other relations in the camp. This was as a result of the fact that at certain time people migrate without adequate preparation and therefore one may find himself/herself at place without any of his relations as everybody runs for his /her life. It was equally reported on table 3, by (61.4%) of the respondents that, they don’t want to stay in the camp any longer. Such response may not be unconnected with lack of freedom that characterizes the camp life and the need by some to start new life after migration.
A total of (38.6%) of respondents said they wanted to continue staying in the camp .when asked on why they wanted to return to their origin or to stay in the camps, respondents attributed the improved security situation in their areas, lack of freedom in the camps and the need to go and work on their farms. However, those who prefer to remain in the camps said because of the availability of food, availability of social amenities and security of the camps. In a similar research Cohen & Deng (1998) observed that households which belongs to the minority groups, have single parent, have females as household heads or are having large dependency ratio in most cases use to be reluctant toward returning to the their original residence. This view is in accordance with the position that displacement changes the structure and size of households, family pattern, and gender role with number of female headed households increasing significantly.
Table 3. Response and percentage of the respondents
Table 4. Response rate of the respondents
Table 5. Percentages of yes and no and the computed Chi-square of the respondents
On the closure of the camps Table 3, reported (52.6%) said yes they wanted the camps to be closed while (47.4%) said no. Respondents when asked on why they wanted the government to close the camps said that, the camp should be closed as promised based on the assessment of the improved security in their home towns, the need for the closure arising from the stoppage of the provision of facilities and the need to re-united with other family members. With regard to the willingness of the respondents to return to their original home or place of residents, (95.2%) were willing to return to origin even though some of them may not in the first place supported the idea of closing the camps. Their reasons may therefore not be because they don’t want to return but may have some reasons unrevealed. This does not coincide with study conducted Mwangi, (2015) that after armed conflict that rocked Uasi-Gishu County in Kenya in 1992, 1997 and 1998 respectively, the IDPs were not willing to return as there was security threat alert. Such threat was demonstrated by the brutal killing of some persons who have gone to check their farms in the fled area. Thus any attempt to close the camp and the IDPs occupying such camps to return should build on security assessment and report by the security agencies. The guarantee of security in places of return for the IDPs is an indispensable condition for their return. Only (4.8%) of the respondents on table 3, said they were not willing to return to origin this may be due to the fact that some respondents have made up their minds not to return home as a result of the trauma they passed through.
Respondents were asked if life in the camps were better than their original homes of residence, (56.14%) preferred life at the original home of residence which may be as result of the freedom independence they enjoyed at the origin. Camp life has a lot of restrictions over the displaced persons. Despite the fact that majority believed life was better at the origin, a significant number of the respondents (43.86%) confirmed that camp life was better to them than what was obtained at the origin which may also be as a result of the fact that food and other basic needs of life were provided to them without their efforts.

12. Hypothesis

HO1: Camps closure will not lead to improvement in the living condition of the IDPs
Ha1: Camps closure will lead to improvement in the living condition of the IDPs
Since the calculated χ² value (12) is higher than the table value at 1 degree of freedom, critical value which is 3.84 p ≤ 0.05, we reject the null (Ho) hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that, camps closure will lead to improvement of life of members of the internally displaced persons.
HO2: Majority of the IDPs are not willing to return
Ha2: Majority of the IDPs are willing to return
Since the calculated χ² value (221) is higher than the table value at 1 degree of freedom, critical value which is 3.84 p ≤ 0.05, we reject the null (Ho) hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that, majority of the internally displaced persons were willing to return to their original homes.

13. Findings

Based on the data collected in the course of the research on issues associated with internally displaced persons camp closure in Yobe state the following findings were arrived at:
1. Majority (52.65%) believed that the camps were due for closure and that government should go ahead and close he camps to enable the internally displaced persons start new life at their origin.
2. That if the government should close the camps, majority (95.18%) preferred to be returned to their original home of residence where they can continue with their lives. However, government should put necessary measures in place so that returnees should not encounter any further problems, this is in line with NRC (2002) that some return plan measures use to be blocked by: continued fighting and insurgency, political impasse, difficulties in regaining lands and properties, widespread presence of land mines in the areas of return and an understandable lack of confidence regarding lasting peace in the area. The return of some ethnic groups in places such as Azerbaijan and Georgia has blocked the return of other groups just as the return of people known to have links with Boko Haram could block the return of others. Also as a policy, the FGN (2012) states that strategies for return, relocation, or integration of Internally Displaced Persons shall include the following:
a. Provision for post-traumatic disorder counseling support services to enable the IDPs observed the traumatic conditions that affected them so that they accept returning to their homes
b. Provision of a comprehensive return policy
c. Recovery and restoration of lands, houses and other properties left behind by the Internally Displaced persons (IDP) during the displacement
d. Ensuring safety and security before, during and after the return as it is the primary issue of concern
e. Reconstruction of shelter and settlement lost during the displacement
f. Provision of suitable livelihood opportunities
g. Restoration of social services including health services and education among others
h. Activation of society protection and safety measures
3. It was revealed that majority (65.79%) of the respondents have been enjoying assistance from governments, non-governmental organizations, philanthropic individuals and organizations. Thus such assistance need to be extended even after camps closure to enable the internally displaced persons settle fully.
4. Majority (70.23%) were of the view that even though they were not at their original homes of residence, they believed that life at their original homes of residence could be better than the present realities. Deninger (2004) while analyzing the motivations for the desire to return, observed that return measures used to be informed by economic opportunities, socio-demographic characteristics, level of trauma, duration of displacement:

14. Conclusions

Human displacement is not a new phenomenon across the world and even Yobe state which is the subject of this research, however the state has never witnessed such magnitude of displacements. Dealing with such situations therefore takes the efforts of the government, non-governmental organizations and individuals to insure that the needed is done to safeguard lives of people. As IDP Camps are not permanent inhabitants but rather temporary measures in crises situations, they bound to be closed by the government or naturally as the case with some that the IDPs decided to return to their origin without government directives. The research has been able to examine the issues relating to the closure of the IDP Camps in Yobe State with the view of determining whether such will have an effects on the internally displaced persons. Such will help in guiding the policy maker in their decisions and the appropriate measures to be taken.

15. Recommendations

1. Government need to close the internally displaced persons camps in the state, however, those who chose to stay behind should not be forced out of the camps but rather an alternative arrangements be made for them.
2. Adequate arrangements should be put in place for safe return, safe stay and for continuation with normal life at the origin. This can done by making adequate security arrangements, providing social amenities such as schools, water, communication facilities, health facilities and markets.
3. Those who chose not to return to the origin should also be given adequate support to enable them easy relocation or integration. This can also be inform of assistance to start business, providing them plots of land and giving training in some kind of business they would be able to engage in.
4. Assistance has to continue some time until the returnees are fully settled to be able to support themselves. Such assistance should include food items, clothes and other basic requirements.


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