Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning

p-ISSN: 2471-7401    e-ISSN: 2471-741X

2022;  5(1): 1-11


Received: Dec. 24, 2021; Accepted: Jan. 10, 2022; Published: Jan. 13, 2022


The Study of Errors in Acquisition of Chinese “de/的” by Zimbabwean Students

Wu Wen Jie, Itayi Artwell Mareya

College of Literature, Hebei University, Baoding City, China

Correspondence to: Itayi Artwell Mareya, College of Literature, Hebei University, Baoding City, China.


Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


The importance of learning Chinese language and culture to ensure sound communication has become one of Zimbabwe’s goal to achieve. Words are an important component in any language.. This paper will focus on the Chinese auxiliary /particle “de” whose frequency of use is very high yet it is broad in terms of its usage. Zimbabwe students frequently make errors when they use the particle “de”. This paper will examine the use of particle “de” by Zimbabwe students, with the intention of reducing the occurrence of errors and also to alert learners to avoid its wrong use. I hope the research will provide an important reference material even for the Chinese language instructors, and will contribute immensely to the field of TCSL as a whole.

Keywords: De, Shona language, Chinese language, Zimbabwean Student, Error

Cite this paper: Wu Wen Jie, Itayi Artwell Mareya, The Study of Errors in Acquisition of Chinese “de/的” by Zimbabwean Students, Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2022, pp. 1-11. doi: 10.5923/j.jalll.20220501.01.

1. Introduction

Because of the great difference and cultural diversity between the two countries of Zimbabwe and China the language structure and the language model are not the same, so it is difficult for the students of Zimbabwe to study Chinese. In order to coordinate and reconcile these differences, the good background of communication should be enhanced, and the research is focused on the problems used by the students in Zimbabwe. The two official languages used in schools and in families can lead to different grammatical problems. After the students of Zimbabwe learn Chinese, the grammatical problems are further complicated, as the Chinese grammar can sound contrary to the Shona language and the English language of Zimbabwe.
The economic, educational, social and bilateral relations between the two governments of China and Zimbabwe are the most important. The people of Zimbabwe, and the Chinese people and their governments cannot be separated. Chinese as a second language in Zimbabwe found that the use of "de" in Chinese grammar, has many errors and errors in their grammatical representation, for example; in Chinese grammar, the "de" was after an adjective, but in "Shona" the grammar was wrong, And a syntax error, so there's no point in "Shona" to add to that use of the Chinese pronoun "de/of". In "Shona", this has brought great grammatical errors, "acquisition" (习得), "Learning” (学得) cannot be converted to the "de" of the "acquisition" of the adjective "de" structure and the noun or pronoun "de/of" in one sentence. It is important to choose the appropriate adjective, noun, or pronoun in the course of using "de". We know that Chinese language is one of the most important language in the world, so we need a deep research method to master the correct usage and wrong use of the adjective.

2. Background of Study

2.1. Chinese “de” Ontology

The auxiliary word "de" has the following functions, which is used between attributive and central language, but not all of them should be used after attributive. Which situations are used as "de"? Department of Chinese, Peking University (1955-1957). If the central language is an abstract noun, it is generally used, and if it is a verb as an attributive monosyllabic verb and a general disyllabic verb as attributive, it must be used. In Chinese adjectives, monosyllabic adjectives are generally not used as attributives, but disyllabic adjectives are generally used as attributives. In addition, colloquial adjectives are often not used as attributives. It belongs to adjectives in written language, but it is necessary to make attributives.
Chinese "de" has always been a controversial topic. Looking at the research results at home and abroad, we can find that these studies are generally from two perspectives: one is to study the qualitative problem of “de". There are other special usages in Chinese, such as the insertion of a noun or personal pronoun between certain verbs and objects, indicating that the person is the recipient of the action. “Joke = make fun of him, 开玩笑=开他的玩笑.” Chinese "de" can be used in front of nouns, indicating that the words or phrases in front of them are attributives. But not all attributives are used. Sometimes it has to be used, sometimes it can't be used, sometimes it can be used or not. You don't have to use it all the time, such as: “whose bag is this?, 这是谁的书包?” Nouns are used as attributives, indicating that the nature is generally not "added", if "added" means that nouns are used as attributives to indicate that the profession does not add "de." When expressing kinship, generally do not use "de". "de”, have the function of emphasizing ownership. Attributives and nouns are often combined. The word "de" can be used, but it does not have to change its meaning. According to Lu Fubo (2002), the auxiliary word is appended to another word or phrase. The phrase, which constitutes a new phrase, can be used to refer to human things, which is equivalent to a name, but, unlike a specific noun, the phrase has classified the specific person or thing into the semantic field at a higher level. For example, “there are some red apples here, 这里有一些红色的苹果.
“There are some green apples, 有一些绿色的苹果” We need to pack them separately, and we can say;“ red, here, green there, 红的装这里,绿的那里.” At this point, the "red, 红的" becomes a new class. Used to refer to a specific “red apple, 红色苹果.” Because the effect of the "de/of" phrase is rather a noun, the main appearance in the middle is in the position of the subject or object. In the years, there are many problems not to be studied, but there are many issues that are not clear. The problem is when to use and when not to use “de", but it is not clear. "What is the difference between the attributive and the central language," and the use of “de" between the attributive and the central language"? Zhang Min (1998), from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, has made an interpretation of the problem, and it is believed that according to the "iconic, iconicity" in the cognitive domain, it is also translated into the principle of iconicity. It is also translated as the principle of "iconicity". The use of "whether or not" in Chinese reflects the degree of closeness between attributives and central languages in the real world. For example, the degree of closeness between the biased structural attributive and the central language of "male / female refers to human noun" is not necessarily the same in the minds of Han people.
It seems that, as far as the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language is concerned, just giving a cognitive explanation can not completely solve the problem of using “de” or not in the correct structure. This problem still has the value of further study. At the end of the sentence, there is also a question of when to use it and when not to use it. In foreign language teaching in a school, a foreign student who wrote such a sentence in the composition (18) was reasonable. The teacher added a word at the end of the correction, and changed to "(19) he did it." (20) In doing so, he is biased. The teacher gave the "de/of" to the deletion and changed: (21) He is a partial messenger. With regard to the "de/of", there is also a question of structural analysis, that is, how the "de/of" in the "Who’s the primary, 谁的主度?" There is also a question of how to "analyze" in "whose principality", concerning" structural analysis " should be analyzed. Who's the/谁的..? "The nature of which is not said) here." of the "as a quasi-attributive, but" who is the "What about the word structure? " of the "Is it one" is the same as the "Who's book/谁的书?," of the book "(Shi de xi (1982)"? Is that the "de/of" of "Your book/你的书", my (pen)/我的笔, the red/红的, the food/吃的, the "de/of", also the structure aid? What is the nature of the structure of "whose subjectivity" (it is distinctly different from the nature of the biased structure of "student union subjectivity")? This is a question worthy of study. (Ma Zhen 2016) In the last few years, there have been some "studies", but there are still many unresolved problems, he said. The most salient question is the question of "when and when not to use ", which has not been clearly answered.
In the years, there are many problems not to be studied, but there are many issues that are not clear. The problem is when to use and when not to use “de", but it is not clear. "What is the difference between the attributive and the central language," and the use of “de" between the attributive and the central language"? Zhang Min (1998), from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, has made an interpretation of the problem, and it is believed that according to the "iconic, iconicity" in the cognitive domain, it is also translated into the principle of iconicity. It is also translated as the principle of "iconicity". The use of "whether or not" in Chinese reflects the degree of closeness between attributives and central languages in the real world. For example, the degree of closeness between the biased structural attributive and the central language of "male / female refers to human noun" is not necessarily the same in the minds of Han people.

2.2. Teaching Chinese “de” as a Foreign Language

Making a sentence using “de” in teaching of Chinese as a foreign language has always been a difficult point in teaching. In Chinese teaching, the teaching of “de” is relatively large, which is relative to the regular grammar teaching such as the noun pronoun, the adjective, the structure aid question and the like. In addition, the main research object in the teaching aspect of the Chinese teaching is the problem of grammar and the teaching method. The grammar has the rule that the knowledge point is determined, and the teaching method makes the non-fixed, and is more flexible.
Shao Jingmin pointed out in his brief introduction to semantic Grammar that "formal grammar is marked by formalization" and "functional grammar is marked by function". To sum up, I also note that no matter which of the above three aspects of the study, in the process of the study, the relevant research results in modern Chinese are often quoted, that is to say, not many literature are really summarized from the perspective of second foreign language acquisition. At present, one of the serious problems in the teaching of second language acquisition in Chinese is that the teaching methods and methods are not mature and the grammatical content is not systematic. This shows that from the perspective of second language acquisition, it is necessary for the majority of scholars to step up their research efforts so as to enrich the research in this field and help the students whose mother tongue is not Chinese to learn Chinese.
Table 1. HSK “de” details

2.3. Mixed Errors

Mixed errors, it may not be difficult to understand the concept of mixed error, in short, it is the set of three types of errors. That is, there are many errors in the sentence, and there are two or more cases in the basic error types. Although the concept is easy to understand, in the actual error sentence pattern analysis, mixed error is a difficult point, because the more types of mixed errors, the more complex the sentence pattern structure. As far as the degree of error is concerned, although this kind of mixed error is more serious, it does not mean that students are particularly lack of knowledge of adjectives, or that the level of Chinese is particularly poor. Because with the improvement of Chinese level, the sentences used in learning and using will become more complex and difficult, and this kind of complex sentence pattern often makes foreign students confused and do not know where to start, so there is a mixed error of adjectives It may not be difficult to understand the concept of mixed error, in short, it is the set of the above three types of errors. That is, there are many errors in the sentence, and there are two or more cases in the basic error types. Although the concept is easy to understand, in the actual error sentence pattern analysis, mixed error is a difficult point, because the more types of mixed errors, the more complex the sentence pattern structure. In the corpus error sentence pattern, I look for a particularly reasonable sentence, but because of the mixed error problem seems to be inadequate. Because Zimbabwe students, when they study, teachers often use mixed languages (English and Shona) to explain the grammatical errors in learning Chinese, which is much better in the acquisition of special adjectives. This can improve the level of Chinese learning. From the following example, we can find that the mixed error is often used from the mixed language;
For example:
(1) Mota iyi irikufamba zvishomanana= this car is too slow. “这辆车太慢的,” Replace it with the following:. this car is too slow, “这辆车太慢了/这辆车太慢.”
(2) Mugwagwa uyu wakapamhana= this road is very narrow, “这条路很狭窄的,” Replace it with the following: the road is very narrow, “这条路很狭窄.”
(3) Imba iyi yakanaka= this house here is very beautiful, “这儿的栋房子很漂亮,” Replace it with the following: this house is very beautiful, “这栋房子很漂亮.”
(4) Hembe dzake itsvuku= his clothes are red, “他的衣服红的” this sentence should be replaced by the following; his clothes are red, “他的衣服是红色的.”
(1) This sentence if it has not used “de” as a mixed language it should be as follows; this car is too slow, “这辆车太慢了.”
(2) This sentence if not using “de” as a mixed language it should be as the following; this road is very narrow, “这条路很狭窄.”
(3) This sentence if not used “de” as a mixed language it should be as follows; this house is beautiful, “这栋房子很漂亮.”
(4) This sentence if not used “de” as a mixed language it should be as follows; his clothes are red, “他的衣服是红色的.”
Well, in order to learn the aspects of Chinese, there is no need for such a mixed problem. Although Zimbabwe students and local Chinese teachers have all studied Chinese international education, their Chinese is not perfect yet. Compared with Chinese teachers, Zimbabwe teachers still have poor Chinese listening and speaking skills, and they also lack systematic knowledge of Chinese theory and some necessary Chinese teaching skills. Therefore, when giving lectures, they usually explain in their mother tongue or English. That would make it easy for Zimbabwe students to learn Chinese, but it would have a negative effect on students' own progress. In order to get a good effect of Chinese teaching, teachers must use Chinese as the medium language and must use as little English or mother tongue as possible.

2.4. Omission Error

The omission error of Ibrahin (1975), according to the (Uygur nationality), “de” is the most frequently used and complex function word in modern Chinese. If multiple collinearity is encountered, some variables with collinearity are eliminated. Many scholars have done detailed research on the errors of Chinese verbs or adjectives. In these studies, the problem of omission errors is studied without exception, which shows that this type of error is a common problem for second language acquisition students. Combined with the research object of this paper, the omission error of verbs or adjectives is studied in detail. In the homework of native language students, there are many omissions of verbs or adjectives, which is a common type of errors. Aiming at the concept of omission error, this paper puts forward the following point of view, which is also the definition of omission error. In short, it is an error caused by omission. The focus of this paper is adjectives, the omission of adjectives is generally divided into two cases, one is the omission of verbs or adjectives themselves, and the other is the omission of parts that match verbs or adjectives. The following are some of the missing errors used by Shona speakers of Hebei University in homework and social networking chats:
(1) “洗衣服还没有干” Washing clothes is not dry yet. It should be; “洗的衣服还没有干” (the laundry is not dry yet).
(2) 你的衬衫是红还是黑? is your shirt red or black? It should be; “你的衬衫是红的还是黑的?”
(3) “根据她们的意见这个句子是对”, according to their opinion the sentence is correct. The Chinese sentence should however change into the following sentence; “根据他们的意见这个句子是对的.”
(4) “我们在世界上每个人都喜欢幸福的”, everyone in the world likes happiness. The Chinese sentence should however change into the following sentence, “我们在世界上每个人都喜欢幸福生活.”
(5) “大家说说, 等等, 可热闹,” talk about it, and so on. The Chinese sentence should therefore be as follow;“家说的说, 等的等, 可热闹了.”
(6) “搬搬, 抬抬, 红红, 这么多家具一会儿就完了”, move, lift, red, so much furniture will be moved in a minute. This sentence should be corrected as follows; “搬的搬, 抬的抬, 红的红, 这么多家具一会儿就完了”, move, lift, red, so much furniture will be finished in a minute.
(7) “别看他大大咧咧, 什么事他都很在心” Don't look at him careless, he is very attentive to everything. This sentence should be corrected into the following; “别看大大咧咧的, 什么事都很在心”, Don't look at his carelessness, He's very attentive to everything. In the case of omissions of verbs or adjectives in the above examples, the last sentence is missing, and the following sentence is a modified sentence. The first three are omissions of verbs or adjectives.
Example (6) is a little special. The expression meaning of the whole sentence can be understood, but it gives people an awkward feeling in grammar. Adding can make the sentence more smooth.
As for example (7), the above two modification schemes are given, both of which can be used, the difference is that the meaning of " Shona and Chinese adjectives" is different, which depends on the expression of this sentence. But you must choose a suitable adjective..
The principle of grammatical ordering and its usage are not exactly the same as those of Chinese adjectives when the adjectives are used. In view of this difference.
The following examples are given according to the comparison between Shona adjectives and Chinese adjectives:
“红色帽子”, red hat = ngovani tsvuku
“红色的帽子”, red hat = ngovani ye (red)
“帽子” ngovani, hat
“红色” tsvuku=, red
“的/de” adjective suffix
“他戴红色帽子” akapfeka ngovani tsvuku, he wears red hat
他戴红色的帽子 akapfeka ngovani ye (red) = he wears red hat / he wears red hat (Shona and English)
戴了, Akapfeka, (transitive verb/ Past tense)
Ye, (后缀)
红, Red (adjective) (English)
“他戴红色的帽子” he wears a red hat = akapfeka ngovani tsvuku (needs to use the adjective "ye" in the Chinese grammar of this sentence) he wears a red hat = akapfeka ngovani ye (red). It is correct in the Chinese grammar of this sentence, but it is incorrect in the Shona grammar because the (ye) prefix is not used in (tsvuku), but if you use (ye) red, the acquisition of Chinese adjectives for Zimbabwe students is very complicated. Because Zimbabwe uses Shona and English, we can find that my sentences above have mixed errors, whether the mixed errors are acquired more in nouns or pronouns. Even intermediate-level students at the Confucius Institute of the University of Zimbabwe make such mistakes.

2.5. Redundant Bias Error

The redundancy bias is divided into six classes according to function and usage, and each class can be divided into typical members and atypical members. The typical word-aid generally has the syntactic and Chinese characteristics of the aid word, and the atypical aid is only the grammatical feature of the word-aid in a certain degree or some aspect: in addition, the typical word-aid is generally used in various styles and occasions, more commonly used and popularized, and the common use of the atypical aid is relatively small. The redundancy bias is often used in the expression and writing. For the "sentence that has used the structure aid" or "no need to add the structure aid words", it is still unnecessary to add the structure aid words, which is a bit similar to the case of" adding the foot of the drawing ", and the missing component is just the opposite to the missing component. I have made a classification of the partial false sentence after the" redundant and erroneous sentence "of the structure-aid word in the corpus. The other cases: from the grammar, the semantic collocation, the restriction angle, the structure aid word's redundancy. The following text will extract several representative sentences from the corpus in detail.
For example:
(1) They studied Chinese at the University Zimbabwe of. (Shona expression of “de/of”.
他们在津巴布韦大学学汉语的. (Students ’s use of Chinese “de/of”
(2) They studied Chinese at the University of Zimbabwe.
The above two examples are that the students use of the structural support "de/of", the excess and the proper addition of the structure-aid "de/of", resulting in a bias. This is mainly because the students have no understanding of the grammatical characteristics of the structure. It is because the grammar and the expression of the sentence pattern have already existed to some extent, so if the structure-aid modification is added again, the sentence's error is caused.
For example:
(1) We have more than 30,000 students in our school.
(2) I had a three-year high school life in that city
(3) He was a lion's
(4) One of the main effects of his wearing a pair of red leather shoes
One of the main functions of the "attributive" is to use it as a sign between attributive and central language. However, not all attributives must be added to the end. Two points need to be paid attention to: one is the general law of "why not use"; the other is the position of “de"in the long attributive. For example, the connected attributive of "de" and its central language: the adverbial of "local" connection and its central language, the "de" conjunction complement and its central language, etc.
For example:
The sentence of the column (1) should be changed to; (we have more than 30,000 students in our school), “我们学校有三万多学生” The collective nature of the reciprocal relationship can be used without the "de". (2) The error of the second sentence is from a redundant error. (I spent three years in the city for a three-year high school life.) The pronoun "quantifier does not need to be used", but if it is a number of words, it is used later. This should be changed into the following; “我在那座城市度过了三年的高中生活”. Sentence (3) is a descriptive expression and the correct sentence is used from the language of repair, but a redundant error is used in the Chinese language. Instead, it should be: (he is like a lion). “他像一头狮子”. (4) The sentence should be changed to (he is wearing a pair of red leather shoes), “他穿着一双红皮鞋”, expressing that “de” can not be used in this sentence. It is worth noting that some Chinese structure-aid "de" redundancy bias is correctly expressed in the Chinese language, which is because the Chinese structure aid "de" has no "expand", and the structure-aid "de" in the Chinese language can be used for "expand". In response to this problem, I selected one of the few structural support "de" in Shona, and made the following comparison by way of example and Chinese structure aid "de".
For example:
In Chinese spoken, “他们做(的)饭很好吃” The Chinese structure aid: they've done a good meal, in Shona, “他们(的)做(的)饭好吃(的)” zvavanobka (the rice that they do), zvinonaka (good), also often said in Chinese (they cook very good), but will not say that (they're having a good meal), and this grammar is too much trouble for Zimbabwean students to learn Chinese use of the structure-aid "de". The following are other redundancy bias; for example, “他说一假话(+)de”, Shona =Anonyeba uyu , He said that the word is false, should be changed into the following, “他说的是假话/他说假话”. The sentence "hazvitarisirwe zvakadai zvi =", This is an unexpected thing, “这真是(+)的(+)想不到(+)的事,” should be changed into Chinese as follows, “这真是想不到(+)的事.” Through the above-mentioned comparison, we have clearly seen the difference in the expansibility of the Shona and the Chinese-language structure-aid "de".

3. Research Methodology

The researcher surveyed over 150 Zimbabwean students both studying Chinese in China and in Zimbabwe using research questions structured with a total of 30 questions composed of 6 multiple choice questions, 16 Chinese translation questions and 8 questions for re-arrangement using the Chinese “de”. Only 50 returned their questionnaires. The following is the response of the students in the following tables and their results. The results shows that the students learning levels 1-3 made similar disorder errors while level 4-6 students made omission errors, redundant and mixed errors.
There are four main research methods in this study: questionnaire method, interview method, online method and "Quantitative Research Method". In this study, the main data used are: the error rate of common use, the types of errors in the daily life and exercises of native speakers, the number of sentences, and so on. There are many methods in this paper, such as questionnaire, oral interview, social network chat information collection and so on. The main function of this method is to collect more comprehensive and accurate data, so that the argument in this paper is more persuasive, and the research results are more in line with the reality. Comparative research. The contrast of Chinese "and the use of (Shona) language", the contrast between biased sentence patterns and correct sentence patterns, the contrast of mother tongue language environment, and so on. The advantage of using comparative research is that it can clearly reflect the similarities and differences between the two sides. Case study method. There are also many students whose mother tongue is (Shona) living in China. Because of their limited ability, I can not make the mistake that students who have native language are commonly used in the study. Therefore, in considering the distribution of native language students, most of them are undergraduate and graduate students, and Hebei University is selected as native language students in the past three years to sort out the situation of using Chinese in their homework and communication, and to make a detailed study of the erroneous sentences.

3.1. Contrastive Study Theory

According to (China Language network 2010) ,based on the fact that second language acquisition teaching has high requirements for grammar and needs to explain the grammar knowledge of language systematically in order to help students form a complete knowledge network framework. However, the grammar knowledge of Chinese is relatively difficult, so it is particularly important to use appropriate methods to teach. Comparison is a method used in many studies, because comparison makes the difference more obvious. A comparative study is carried out in foreign language teaching, so that we can obviously see the same expression of meaning, different expressions between China and foreign countries, and then we can predict which learning Chinese will be more difficult for foreign students, which is their difficulty, in order to be fully prepared and patiently explained before teaching. In the study of foreign language teaching, the comparison between mother tongue and foreign language can make a clearer understanding of the differences of thinking modes in different cultures, so as to make use of mother tongue knowledge to deepen the understanding of foreign language knowledge. Distinct image and strong feeling are the two characteristics of comparative study.
The principle of consciousness in the teaching of second language acquisition is a contrastive study of two language knowledge or two aspects of a language or two similar knowledge points under the same content. The most prominent feature of the principle of consciousness is that the focus of students' learning is on the form of language, not on the content of language expression. The degree of representation of Chinese “de" is also different, so she distinguishes them from each other according to the use of Chinese “de". She studies them in detail according to the use of Chinese “de”, and makes a study and comparison of each Chinese "de". For example, we must add "but the verb does not use" and the adjective "never uses" in Chinese verbs or adjectives. The "Chinese noun or pronoun" is placed in front of the noun or pronoun, but the "noun or pronoun" is placed after the noun or pronoun.
This paper assumes that their first language proficiency is the same as that of English, and that the nuances between individuals will not be reflected in their acquisition of Chinese. However, on the basis of language transfer theory, we assume that language rules may have positive and negative effects. Considering the influence of the use of English and Chinese, learners have used English as the teaching language from the beginning, so they have adopted some English grammar rules in their own language system, which may be related to the way they learn Chinese. Whether English can affect learners' second language use has always been a concern of researchers. Mushangwe (2014) May 28 journal found that Zimbabwe students use certain "ways" to some extent affected by English.

3.2. Error Analysis and Inter-Language Theory

Error research is closely related to the introduction of inter-language research. Including the types of errors and the causes of errors, and so on. Error refers to the deviation from the target language and is a wrong or imperfect expression based on the target language. With the passage of time, the research of relevant scholars has also made a lot of good results, at the same time, the core of scholars' research has been constantly changing in this process. After many studies, they find that the mistakes made by scholars in the process of learning are helpful for researchers to correct their mistakes in time, to improve the mistakes of students, to facilitate future teaching and to spread the foreign language. Error research is a general analysis, can not carry on the targeted analysis, blindly to find out how to avoid the mistake, therefore also avoids a lot of important information. Contrastive analysis can not only analyze the mother tongue, but also analyze the foreign language, so as to achieve the corresponding and get the standard answer.

3.3. Inter-Language Theory

(Inter-language “K” theory) was first put forward by selinker et al. Lu Jianji was the first person in China to propose the use of this theory in error analysis. There is no doubt that these research results have greatly promoted the development of Chinese linguistics and pioneered the use of inter-language theory in China. Although these three separate articles, but these three articles have their internal relations, are inseparable, the three are a whole, which fully reflects that the author is using inter-language theory to demonstrate. His research methods on this issue have their own characteristics, he is from the macro and micro research and comparison. In the study and analysis of the three contents of phonetics, grammar and words in foreign teaching, Lu Jianji contributed a lot, not because he quoted the new theory, but because of the result of his theory. He pointed out that the root of "error" lies in the distance of language, which is not the distance of reality, but the distance of mother tongue, inter-language, target language and so on. The scholar who followed Lu Jianji was Mr. Lu Bi song. In his book the study of expanding Chinese intermediary language, he gives a more detailed explanation of the theory of inter-language, including the purpose, significance and method of the study of Chinese inter-language theory.
For the significance of the study, he believes that it is very effective to use the inter-language theory to study the second language learning comprehensively, and this theory can make the research more systematic and regular. The most important thing is that the theory can be used to compare teaching and learning, which is the most critical process in the whole process. Any of these theoretical achievements will enrich foreign language teaching. In short, in language research, many aspects can be studied by "inter-language theory". We should not only limit ourselves to the previous research ideas and directions, but also continue to develop and innovate; for example, language teaching research, language learning research, language contrastive study under cross-cultural background, error analysis in second language learning, and so on, can be used. Therefore, we should pay attention to the study of inter-language. For the first time, Mr. Sun has adopted a "three-in-one" research model, that is, error study, inter-language and second language acquisition. The representative articles are error Studies, Review of Inter-language and second language acquisition Studies. In this paper, the relationship between the above three is analyzed in detail. He believes that in order to solve many problems, it is necessary to objectively understand the learners' inter-language on the basis of research and comparison. To compare each of them, such as age, learning environment, teaching conditions and methods, etc., a comparative study should be carried out.
The term “corpus” is derived from Latin meaning body, collection, compendium, entity or a group of people. According to Oxford Dictionary it means a collection or body of knowledge or evidence. I think there are two main corpus sources that need to be studied together with the subjects of second language learners for a long time. One is a summary of the errors in "HSK dynamic composition Corpus" and "HSK syllabus-CET-6 Vocabulary". Second, in order to ensure the accuracy and pertinence of the data, this paper also collects the error research examples of students using Chinese for students with CET-6 and studying in China by sorting out the homework of the subjects, oral interviews and questionnaires, and the way of social network chat, and the group of whatsapp, wechat, facebook, and qq interviews.
Table 2. Overall HSK “de” error detail

4. Research Analysis

4.1. Learning Strategies and Communication Strategies Influence

In the first chapter of this paper and the analysis of error types in chapter 2 shows that there are many semantics in a Chinese "de", for example, different interpretation methods and different contexts also express different meanings, and the content is very complex. In addition to the study of the knowledge of Chinese "de" itself, there is also the understanding of synonymous, near-meaning Chinese, how to understand them separately. for example; what word is used in what context, can achieve the goal of not misuse. Some details such as "suitable for communication in our daily life, and then we should use those in writing" need to be learned slowly. Chinese is extensive and profound, for a native Chinese and have been speaking Chinese all your life, for these details, to find out is a great project. What's more, for other students, this will be very distressing to them. Among them, it is more difficult for native speakers, because at the beginning of the previous chapter, the concept of "Chinese" is also mentioned in the grammatical system of Shona. In Chinese learning, these students must compare with their mother tongue, Shona language, and study their similarities and differences. So many words have to be compared once. This is a very complex and troublesome learning process, which requires a lot of learning time and patience. A large number of learning time will erode scholars' interest in learning and produce the negative psychology of tired of learning. These reasons bring great obstacles to learners and require learners to treat learning patiently and carefully.
The use of Chinese “de” is particularly difficult in Chinese learning, and there are different contexts in which inappropriate use will confuse words and make a mess of them. Because of the complexity of learning content and the similarity and difference of learners' mother tongue, scholars can easily fall into a state of error. In addition, learners' communicative strategies in the use of language are also an indispensable means, which can enable learners to express their meaning more clearly and quickly. However, if you rely on communicative strategies, avoid words that are not easy to understand, or simplify sentence patterns, or replace similar words with each other, you can make the listener understand the meaning of the speaker, but for a long time, it will play a negative role for learners to learn Chinese. Relying on some skills, not actively analyzing the correct and complete expression will make the study stagnate, and even lead scholars into misunderstandings.
The following phenomena can explain this situation very well. In the corpus of this paper, the number of times of use of Chinese is much higher than that of other Chinese, even if it is compared with the concept of expression. The number of use of nouns or pronouns, verbs or adjectives and structural auxiliaries is not much less than that of Chinese. This shows that learners are dependent on communicative strategies, often using replacement methods, the learning of Chinese is always stagnant on the word, "de" that the words are similar, it is bold to abuse. Among them, we also find that the use of Chinese is a little difficult to understand and use among scholars. However, in the questionnaire survey, it was found that it was easy for those who used to use the Chinese correctly, while those who had little or had never used the Chinese “de” were completely unaware of the “de" of the Chinese. It is possible for native speakers to understand it easily, so this series of problems need to be further explored. However, each “de" has its own specific usage and meaning, for exactly the same “de" is very few, if learners blindly avoid knowledge difficulties.

4.2. Negative Transfer of Target Language Error

In the process of learning new knowledge, we habitually use the knowledge of the past or the knowledge that has been mastered to understand the knowledge to be studied; similar to the part that has been known to push the unknown part. The effect of the "The migration of the so-called language is actually an influence, which is the mutual influence between the purpose language and the mother tongue. Many research results show that the migration of language is restricted by many factors, including the purpose language, the mother tongue, the learning environment, the learning task, the learning plan and so on." is positive, that is, positive migration; if it is negative, it is positive migration; if it is negative, it is positive migration and negative migration. For the bias of language migration, the scholars seldom analyze the impact of language migration from the perspective of the target language migration.
I also note that the research of the target language migration angle is less than that of the native language migration, and I have decided to choose the angle study. The students of second language acquisition are prone to the bias of the Chinese "de/of" because of the transition. Because of the many words and the grammar of the target language, they are not very familiar. In order to help themselves understand, one way to habitually adopt is to guess by their own mother tongue knowledge, to knock on to master what is learned. In other words, it is the students' knowledge of their mother tongue, the forcible addition to the second language's study, so as to create an error. We can call this error as a "transition generalization" or a "over-thrust". The content in this area has been studied in a number of scholars, and in fact, the bias brought by the migration is not just in the mother tongue. Negative transfer refers to the interference effect of learning on the other, and in the teaching of the Chinese as a foreign language, the target language is Chinese, so the negative transfer in the Chinese as a foreign language is the negative transfer of the mother tongue, not the purpose language. For example, a person who is a mother tongue can learn Chinese and always use the pronunciation of English to speak Chinese, which is the negative transfer of the mother tongue (Shona) to the study purpose language (Chinese). The negative migration problem of the target language is common in the emerging words. For the foreign students to China, if you look closely, some Chinese people around the world can use the Chinese "de" in an exaggerated way in the process of communication. When the students don't understand the situation, some mistakes will be generated, and even the trial is regarded as a grammatical rule. In recent years, there have been a lot of popular network terms in the Chinese vocabulary, which will cause the students to misunderstand and make their grammar more confused, so as to induce a mistake.
For Chinese native students, this has no difficulty, because it is a part of the development of Chinese language and culture, and they are in such a language atmosphere at all times; however, it is not so easy to understand for the students of the Chinese language, and there will be an error in their use. For example, the result of this matter is really great, and the "de" is the result I want. The "de" here has the problem of improper use, giving the person a tone of anti-talk. As the Chinese level of the students is improved, the situation of negative transfer of the mother tongue will naturally be reduced. In Chinese grammar, the position of a noun or a pronoun is relatively fixed, usually in front of a modified or restricted object, and such an object is usually a verb, an adjective. This is similar to the negative transfer of the mother tongue, except that the negative transfer of the mother tongue is based on the knowledge of the purpose of the knowledge of the mother tongue, and the negative transfer of the purpose is the knowledge of another part according to the part of the language of the study. The Chinese "de" is relatively large in relation to the "de/of" of the Chinese "de".
We also need to understand the "order of magnitude" problem in Chinese. For example, in the adjective "We are all good students", when we choose Chinese "de" to modify, we have the following choices: (1) We are all better friends/我们都是比较好(的)朋友. (2) We are all very good friends/我们都是很好(的)朋友. (3) We are all very good friends/我们都是非常好(的)朋友. These three sentences express the same basic meaning as the original sentence "We are all good students", but when adjectives are added, the depth of feelings expressed in sentences is different. Some students are not very clear about this concept, the choice of Chinese “de/of” can be said to be out of order, and sometimes there will be the phenomenon that the degree of adverb chosen is too high. In this regard, I chose a scene to explain: student (A)Student's pen rolled down from the table to the ground, and student (B) helped pick it up, so student (A) said, "I really thank you so much." Then classmate (B) replied, "you're really welcome." For what is used in this scenario, adjectives are a transitional use, therefore there is no need to add the adjective "de”.

4.3. Errors due to Influence by Mother Tongue

Chinese grammar and Shona grammar make many students have a headache, because it is complex and difficult to understand the sentence patterns and phrases which are sometimes difficult to remember. Due to the difference between Chinese and Shona, students whose mother tongue is Shona will inevitably be affected by the language of "learning Chinese". For the errors caused by the differences in grammar between the two languages, give the following examples:
(1) whose dog is this?. imbwa yekumba kwaani? 这是谁家(的)狗?
(2) Zimbabwe is my country. Nyika yangu yezimbabwe, 我(的)国家(的)津巴布韦
(3) His relationship with his parents is not good. Hukama hwake nevabereki vake hauna kunaka, 他(的)关系和父母(的)不好(的).
Should change the sentence above to:
(1) whose dog is this / whose dog is this?. 这是谁家(的)狗/这是谁家狗?
(2) Zimbabwe is my country. 津巴布韦是我(的)国家
(3) His relationship with his parents is not good. 他和父母的关系不好.
From the point of view of Chinese grammar, these sentences can be regarded as complete sentences by adding nouns or pronouns, but they are correctly expressed in (Shona). In Chinese, one of the mistakes that Zimbabwe students often make in verb or adjective is to make use of (Shona) grammar without neglecting the particularity of some Chinese adjectives themselves, which leads to errors. For example:
(1) He buys big apples.
(2) They walk a long way. Both of the above two error sentences belong to the lack of knowledge of adjectives.
After learning "adjectives", it is taken for granted that all adjective objects should be added ". In fact, after some special adjectives use overlapping usage, such adjectives need to add additional adjectives", otherwise there will be the problem of redundant errors mentioned above. In order to better understand the grammatical differences between (Shona) and Chinese verbs, we can also experience them through the following examples:
(1) The people I know. Vanhu vandoziva/我所认知人…
(2) The method used. Nzira dzemashandisirwo acho/所用方法
(3) It is this point that is considered. Ndizvo zvatinazvo paongororo / 所考虑正是这一点
(4) What he reports is very important. Zvaazivisa zvakakosha kwazvo / 他所汇报情况很重要
(5) What he said is very clear. Matauriro ake anonzwisisika / 她所说看法很清楚
These five sentences, from a Chinese grammatical point of view, are missing verbs, which are omissions according to the previous chapter, and then this statement is correct in (Shona). (the verb / noun) So in the above five sentences, you need to add "de" before the verb. In addition to the above, in answering a question, the verb or adjective "can also be used as a sentence, such as:
A: zvaanotaura zvinonzwisisika here?. Is what he says very clear? 他所说看法很清楚么?
B: zvinonzwisisika chaizvo/ It is very clear 很清楚(的), clearly produces different language expression habits in different language and cultural environments, which can not be studied by grammatical knowledge, but can only be remembered through understanding. Moreover, the influence of this “de” on the local people is so far-reaching that it permeates the second language learning across the linguistic and cultural background. Some native speakers are also influenced by Chinese verbs or adjectives when they learn Chinese verbs or adjectives. When these students learn Chinese, they inadvertently make the mistake of "preconceived", that is, to apply some of the “de” in Shona to the daily life of Chinese and , thus resulting in errors.

4.4. Deficiency of “de” in Teaching Chinese

The shortage of attaching importance to Chinese “de” in teaching is that in second language teaching, there is a lack of Chinese teachers in many countries, and Zimbabwe's native tongue is no exception. This lack of teachers is mainly reflected in the lack of local teachers' attention to Chinese. At the time of the survey, the researcher also found that many teachers in Zimbabwe who teach Chinese are now local teachers, so the daily languages used in lectures are Shona and English.
Some Chinese teachers may use English as an inter-language to teach when they can't use complex problems, because when the explanation of Chinese can not be understood by students, they will naturally think of replacing it with other languages, and English is the most widely used language, and most teachers themselves do not know the language very well, which leads to the interlacing of Chinese and English in the whole teaching process. After some adverbs are translated into English, there will be some changes in meaning and rules of use, but because this change is not very obvious, it has been ignored by teachers. Some changes have taken place from Chinese to English, and some changes have taken place from English to (Shona). This kind of difference caused by translation is also easy to be ignored by everyone, but it is necessary to admit that this difference may indeed cause errors. There are also some particularly many, which may not be able to find a more appropriate translation in inter-language, and some similar words may be found to replace them at this time; in this case, the change in Chinese "will only be even greater.

4.5. Errors due to Teaching Material Defection

Errors in teaching materials are an indispensable factor in language teaching. There have been many graduates from Chinese Universities in Zimbabwe since 2012 who do not have jobs but can speak and teach basic Chinese, yet do not have formal Chinese textbooks, which has led to errors in teaching materials. Few countries have Chinese as an official language, including the author's native Zimbabwe. Because of the clear understanding of the situation in own country, the discussion of the textbook selected the Chinese textbook of Zimbabwe. The teaching materials in the primary, intermediate and advanced levels are progressive in difficulty.
The teaching materials in the primary stage are characterized by simple content, less vocabulary quantity, simplified grammar, and intermediate textbooks play a transitional role. Only in the advanced textbooks will there be more detailed knowledge points in Chinese. For example, in the vocabulary part of the textbook, synonyms will be widely used instead of synonyms, which are not accurate enough for students to cause deviation in understanding. Once the understanding of lexical errors is formed, it is difficult to change, and grammatical errors will occur in the process of using them. There are also some teaching materials that introduce less about Chinese new vocabulary, Chinese culture, and Chinese idioms, and some sentences are not clearly explained in terms of expression and context, which makes students produce some situations in use, regardless of context, which shows that the use of teaching materials is not strong, so the method of formal teaching materials is needed. In addition to the Chinese language dictionary, the Chinese teaching materials used by the students of the University of Zimbabwe are all donated by the National Institute of Chinese Studies, all of which are compiled by the Chinese according to the reasonable imagination of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. What if other colleges can not receive donations from the Chinese language learning materials?
The textbooks used by native speakers are basically in line with the requirements of the syllabus and have certain levels and structures. however, as studied above, there are still some shortcomings in these textbooks. For the improvement of teaching materials, the author puts forward some of his own views here. First, the compilation of the main teaching materials. In terms of content, more consideration should be given to the contrast between Chinese and (Shona), and the accuracy of the content of comments should be required as much as possible. Second, the development of auxiliary teaching materials. The development of reference books such as dictionaries is not enough. On the basis of the existing Chinese bilingual dictionary, we should enrich the content of the dictionary and include more entries for the dictionary, or seek intergovernmental cooperation to invest manpower and material resources in compiling a new generation of dictionaries.
Table 3. Overall HSK “de” error detail

5. Improvement of Teaching Material

5.1. Translation of Dictionaries and Shona Textbooks into Chinese

The best benefit of improving the textbook for Zimbabwe students to learn Chinese is to obtain enough easy-to-use learning materials. Including: translation of Chinese books in school to make the meaning of Chinese words or phrases clearer. Zimbabwe's Chinese language and cultural scholars should be encouraged to study and publish translated Chinese learning books.
Table 4A. Zimbabwean students common errors using Chinese “de”

6. Conclusions

Although the Chinese “de” occupies an important position in the Chinese grammar system, both the daily communication and the writing of the article will undoubtedly involve a large number of “de", so mastering the knowledge of Chinese “de” is also the key to learn Chinese well. However, the difficulty of grammar knowledge points is also daunting for many foreign students. In view of its important role and high difficulty, the study of Chinese has become the object of study by the majority of scholars. This study aims at the errors of native speakers in acquiring Chinese. In the content of this paper, it contains a summary of the previous research results, and through the collation of the corpus collected by individuals, this paper analyzes the types and causes of errors in the acquisition of Chinese by native speakers. The whole paper involves a variety of research methods, and also adopts a lot of excellent research theories, the purpose is to help native language students learn Chinese well and reduce the error problem. If some of the suggestions of teaching students can really help the work of Chinese teachers, it must be a great honor for the author. Generally speaking, the success or failure of language teaching depends on teachers, materials, teaching environment and students.


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