International Journal of Modern Botany

p-ISSN: 2166-5206    e-ISSN: 2166-5214

2018;  8(1): 8-14



Survey and Utilization of Wild Plants (Extractivism) in Tengger Society East Java, Indonesia

Jati Batoro, Serafinah Indriyani, Bagyo Yanuwiyadi

Biology Departement Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Brawijaya University Adress: Jl. Veteran Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Correspondence to: Jati Batoro, Biology Departement Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Brawijaya University Adress: Jl. Veteran Malang, East Java, Indonesia.


Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


This survey was conducted in various wild plants in the Tengger community to documented about useful plant diversity. Exploration surveys conducted in the Tengger society covering four districts such Malang, Pasuruan, Probolinggo and Lumajang city, shows that traditional farmers have good knowledges about wild plants and are utilized in their lives. The research of wild plants was collected throught semi-structural interview and open indept interview. To better measuring to the extractive, activities the utilization and strategy development of the wild plants by indigenous people. Some promising wild species of this region are adas (Foeniculum vulagare), jonggol (Erechtites valerianifolia), alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica), tlotok (Curculigo apitulata), putihan (Buddleja indica), klandingan (Albitzia lopantha), paku jangan (Diplazium esculentum), gedang alas (Musa balbisiana), jamur grigit (Schizophyllum aineum), lobak liar (Brassica rapa), tanalayu (Anaphalis javanica). The results of the researchnoted total of 92 wild and semi-wild plants species belonging to 83 general and 45 families are being used in these rituals, foods, and conservation. The management of these resources and the preservation of wild biodiversity along with indigenous knowledge is very essential. It should be developed and documented.

Keywords: Wild plants, Indigenous knowledge, Tengger people, East Java

Cite this paper: Jati Batoro, Serafinah Indriyani, Bagyo Yanuwiyadi, Survey and Utilization of Wild Plants (Extractivism) in Tengger Society East Java, Indonesia, International Journal of Modern Botany, Vol. 8 No. 1, 2018, pp. 8-14. doi: 10.5923/j.ijmb.20180801.02.

1. Introduction

Indonesia is a Asian tropic country with its mega-biodiversity and has many variant of unique culture. This country is so attractive and also having high potential resources that were not explored yet, known futhermore the whole exploited [5]. This country has many culture, rituals, tribes, traditional knowledge, traditional tecnology, local medicine and local languages. Rituals are part of human life since long time before pre-history. On the other hand, conditions has changed after the modern advent of civilization, the civilized man became religious, although forget cultural his ancestors.
Tengger people occupy the Bromo Tengger and Semeru mountain region since before the era of Majapahit kingdom. They make utilize and using plants around them as foods, medicines, toxic, ritual, local tecnology of the generosity of the biodiversity around their neighborhood. The plant diversity in the forest, is the wealth of Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa can be utilized for human livehood. [15] reported a harmonious relationship between organisms including humans and natural ecosystems.
Now Tengger people spread in 47 villages over four regency, i.e. Malang, Probolinggo, Pasuruan and Lumajang, East Java [1, 7, 5]. Two inclave villages namely Ngadas at Malang Regency and Ranupani at Lumajang Regency. The district Bromo Tengger and Semeru temperature between 10°C-20°C degree, sometime 0°C., e.g. Ranupani village Senduro district and has latitudes between 800 m-1800 m ASL. Perhutani in the external edge suround of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTS NP) were located in the districts near a few of cities, i.e. Malang, Probolinggo, Pasuruan and Lumajang [5, 8].
Now the variant traditional plants has change and it affects to their mindset, adaptation management, and all of their lives. Indeed the main resource by providing large genetic variation that can be use to daily are mbote, taro (Calocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa), etc. Exotic food for example, corn (Zea mays), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), cabbage (Brassica olivera), leek (Allium porrum) etc. Those are a vital resources by providing a pool of genetic variation that can be used. Until recently, the main conservation strategy adopted for CWR has been ex-situ through the maintenance. The writer recommend to all those interested in agro-biodiversity in addition protected area conservation [14]. Wild plants surveys were conducted in the Tengger community for documentation of useful plant diversity.

2. Material and Methods

Preservation and Sample Collection
The research were arranged in order to collect information about the knowledge uses of wild plants by the Tengger people in District Malang, Pasuruan, Probolinggo and Lumajang. Standard methods were followed with regard for collection of plant materials, drying, mounting, preparation and preservation of plant specimens. Herbarium specimens of wild and semi-wild plants were collected, prepared and determinated. Plants with their correct nomenclature were arranged alphabetically by local name, scientific name, family name, part uses and location; habitus: (tree, shrub, liana, herb) uses. Plant spesimens collected identificated, preseved and mounted were deposited in Herbarium Brawijaya University (MUBR). The identification and nomenclature of the listed plants were based on the Flora of Java, and Flora Malaesiana [1, 11].
Figure 1. Map of Malang, Probolinggo, Lumajang and Pasuruan East Java and locations of study sites, B. Ciplukan (Physalis peruviana) at Bromo Tengger National Park (BTS NP)
Botanical Knowledge
A questionnaire method was adopted for documentation of botanical knowledge Tengger society. Traditional people indicated that traditional farmers have vast knowledge about their live fencing practices and the species used [12]. The interviews were carried out from local people to document local name and botanical uses. About 30 informants have been interviewed on random basis [15, 10, 17, 19, 13]. The indigenous use having traditional knowledge (perception and conception) of utilization among the Tengger people have been selected as reference specimens herbarium.

3. Results and Discussion

A total of 92 wild and semi-wild edible plant species belonging to 83 genera and 45 families including angiosperm (86), pteridophytes (2), musroom (4), liches (1) were recorded in the study area (Table 1). Of the reported 45 families, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae (11, 10, 8) had the highest number of species, respectively. The largest numbers of edible and utilyzed wild plant species were found to be trees, followed by herbs, shrubs, and climbers (liana). Wild plants in the yard, fields and forest by the Tengger community are also used to meet the needs of his life. Types of semi-wild plants in the Tengger environment include semi-wild sawi liar, mustard (Brassica rapa), bayam (Amaranthus hybridus), ganyong (Canna edulis) and lobak liar, daikon (Raphanus sativus) (6). Ethnobotanical study of wild and semi-wild food plants in Bali Indonesia, recorded species belonging to 41 families and 68 genera, including angiosperms (82) and pteridophytes (4), are categorized as wild (33) and semi-wild (53), of which 63.64% are native to Malesian, Indian, and Indochinese [18]. [16] reported there were 308 plants belonging to 73 plant families that are being used in indigenous food also nutrition. Edible wild plants are used as delicious vegetables, fruits, companions and spices, in fresh, raw, or dried conditions. The risearch study of Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFPs) at Perhutani Bromo Tengger and Semeru recorded local knowledge of plants with approximately 184 species, which are food (57 species), medicinal and poisons (40 species), industry wood of Perhutani (23 species), contruction, firewood and local technology (21 species), conservation (21 species), forage (30 species), fruit (15 species) and ritual (20 species) [7].
Wild-plant species such as jonggol (Erechtites valerianifolia), ciplukan (Physalis peruviana), paku jangan (Diplazium esculentum), klandingan fruit (Acacia decurrent), jamur grigit, mushroom (Schizophyllum aineum) can support the economy, so honey forests (Apis sp.) family Apidae. Adas (Foeniculum vulgare) is the most favored plant species because it has the potential to cure various diseases such as colds, diarrhea and headache. Even though ciplukan (Physalis peruviana) by tengger society is used as high blood medicinal, stroke and diabetes. Klandingan fruit (Albitzia lopantha) has properties such as jengkol (Archidedron pauciflorum) and pete (Parkia speciosa), increase appetite. Wild and semi-wild edible plants play an important role in providing the Balinese with various essential nutrients [18]. According to pairwise ranking analysis, fruits of Vitex doniana and the leaves of Portulaca quadrifida are the most preferred plant species because of their sweet taste [9]. The local name krokot (Portulaca quadrifida) plant by tengger society is not used as food, sometimes as a mixture of fodder. Customary ritual activities used primarily viz tlotok (Curculigo capitulata), ringin (Ficus benyamina), gedang alas, banana (Musa balbisiana), kananga (Cananga odorata), piji (Pinanga coronata), putihan (Buddleja indica), tanalayu, edelweis (Anaphalis spp.), alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica), cemara gunung (Casuarina junghuhniana) and bamboo (Dendrocalamus, Gigantochola). [7] reported index of cultural significance (ICS) medium-high consist of Gedang (Musa paradisiaca, Musa balbisiana) (54), bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochola apus) (38), ringin (Ficus benyamina) (38), alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) (34), tanalayu (Anaphalis spp.) (32), klandingan (Albitzia lopantha) (32), putihan (Buddleja asiatica) (30), jarak kepyar (Ricinus communis) (32).
The different plants used in the five common are tabulated below (Table 1). This table gives correct botanical name of plants, local name, common name, family, part used, location; habitus: (tree, shrub, liana, herb).
Table 1. The different plants used in the five common are tabulated below

4. Conclusions

Tengger people have knowledge and wisdom to use wild and semi-wild plants in 92 species belonging to 83 genera and 45 families were recorded. Those are utilized as local technological materials, fruits, custom rituals, vegetables, art, animal feed, medicines and toxins. Wild plant species are taken on a limited basis and according to customary rules, so it is not harm for the environment. Traditional knowledge related to the use of wild and semi-wild vegetable plants is threatened with extinction. Therefore, the management of these resources and the preservation of biodiversity along with indigenous knowledge is essential and should be documented.

5. Suggestion

For the further researcher, various utilizations wild plant and semi-wild by Tengger people of a part of fields, Perhutani and Bromo Tengger National Park (BTS NP) must be considered about the positive and negative impact to the area around. Might the positive effects were positive economic, socio-cultural for related communities, Perhutani and BTS NP as well as its own environment.


The research give special thank to the Competitive Research Projects of Higher Education BOPTN Brawijaya University, so that the research could be conducted. The similar appreciated would be dedicated Mr. Totok Haryanto, Mr. Susanto for the leader of Perhutani Pasuruan and Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (BTS NP). Unforgottable, the help from the leader of local people in Malang, Probolinggo, Pasuruan and Lumajang.


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