International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy

2020;  4(1): 1-9



Role of African Women in Development and Economic Life: Reality and Challenges

Cherifa Klaa

Faculty of Political Science and International Relations, University of Algiers 3, Algeria

Correspondence to: Cherifa Klaa , Faculty of Political Science and International Relations, University of Algiers 3, Algeria.


Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


Women represent half the population of Africa, and although they are considered internationally as one of the main pillars of economic development, they have suffered from an unjust social heritage in addition to discriminatory practices both in terms of gender equality and in the market. This reflected on their social, educational and cultural situation. Although some progress has been made in an attempt to address women in Africa and their role in social and economic life, there are still social and economic challenges that prevent the African Women from being enabled. Therefore, we seek to address the issue of African women's role in development and economic life between the reality and challenges, by focusing on the following themes: 1. Concepts and concepts of: development, economic empowerment. 2. The social and economic situation of women in Africa and the state of economic insecurity. 3. The social and economic challenges of women in Africa. 4. Ways to contribute to improving the socio-economic status of women in Africa and their economic empowerment.

Keywords: Women Development, African Women, Economic Empowerment, Social and Economic Life, Women Achievement Reality and Challenges

Cite this paper: Cherifa Klaa , Role of African Women in Development and Economic Life: Reality and Challenges, International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.5923/j.ijire.20200401.01.

1. Introduction

The percentage of women in Africa is more than half the population of the African continent, but the figures and data indicate the low level of education, health and economic thus being the most woman in the world to bear the burdens, especially in support of children, in the absence of the husband and the supporter, due to death or divorce or abandonment and other reasons. Therefore, African women suffer from social and economic insecurity, living under severe psychological and economic pressures as a result of bearing the brunt of family affairs. The social and economic role of women in the African continent differs from country to country or from region to region. The role of women in North African countries differs from East and West Africa, as well as from Central and South Africa, although women in their content and entity do not change, and by following the various African mechanisms and measures On the subject of women, the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, annexed to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights adopted by the General Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union, stated at its second ordinary summit in the Mozambican capital of Maputo on 11 June 2003 that women have full The Protocol urged States parties to take all appropriate measures to integrate a gender perspective into national development planning processes, to ensure the participation of women at all levels in the formulation and implementation of development policies and programs, and to implement and evaluate such policies and programs. The need to promote women's access to and control over productive resources such as land; to promote women's access to credit, training and skills development and to expand services in rural and urban areas in order to provide higher quality of life The African Union, at its annual summit in Addis Ababa and the city of Maqali in 2016, focused on women in Africa with the theme: "African Year of Human Rights, with particular focus on women's rights", in order to view them as the most important economic component For Africa, where women's economic empowerment has emerged as an important and sustainable aspect of accelerating development in developing countries.
Although some notable progress has been made in an attempt to address women in Africa and their role in social and economic life, African women continue to face gender barriers to their successful participation in the workplace, particularly employment policies and discriminatory employment practices. Africa suffers from discrimination at work, unequal sharing of family and family responsibilities, lack of supervision of productive resources such as land and property, their lack of low-paid jobs, and the operation of micro-enterprises and scale, there is still a limit to the contribution of African women to social and economic life through their limited empowerment on the development side.

2. Importance and Problem of Research

The importance of this research is that it targets to answer the set of questions related mainly to the role of African women in development and economic life by reading the reality of that role and the challenges facing women in Africa and how to contribute to improving their social and economic conditions in order to enable them economically.
The Research Problem: The social and economic reality of women in Africa makes us look at the problems and challenges that stand in the way of empowering them. This raises the main problem: How strong is the empowerment of African women in development and economic life?
The importance of this research is to answer the set of questions related mainly to the role of African women in development and economic life by reading the reality of that role and the challenges faced by women in Africa by addressing the main problem: The extent to which African women are empowered in the field of development and economic life?
Research elements: Through this research, we will try to address the theme: "The Role of African Women in Development and Economic Life: Reality and Challenges", by addressing the following points:
1. Concepts and concepts of: development, economic empowerment.
2. The social and economic situation of women in Africa and the state of economic insecurity.
3. The social and economic challenges of women in Africa.
4. Ways to contribute to improving the socio-economic status of women in Africa and their economic empowerment.

3. Literature Review

3.1. Concepts of Development

The concept of development is one of the most important global concepts in the sixties of the twentieth century. It is the process of establishing coherent economic and political systems in the so-called "development process." This concept of post-independence transformation in the 1960s refers to Asia and Africa, the importance of the concept of development is highlighted in its multiple dimensions and levels and its interrelationship with many other concepts such as planning, modernization, production, progress, development and transformation.
The concept of development is associated with the concept of modernity. In its broad sense, the concept of "renewal" refers to the status of people affected over time by economic, social, cultural and political dynamics. They are related to a particular time and place. The talk somewhere may be ancient and different. Modernism From one field to another, in the economic field, "modernity" means the industrialization, reconstruction and increasing use of technology within all sectors of the economy. This technique and science influenced the social and cultural fields, known as the period of enlightenment in Western Europe beginning of the 17th century and the end of the second century In terms of development, it is important to recognize that all concepts of development necessarily reflect a certain set of social and political values. The concept of development also meets the concepts of "progress", "evolution" and "modernization". The highest degree of development is developed, developed and modern industrial.
The concept of development first emerged in economics, where it was used to denote the process of creating a set of radical changes in a given society, in order to give the community, the ability to develop.
The improvement in the quality of life of all its members, in the sense of increasing the capacity of the society to respond to the basic needs and the increasing needs of its members, ensures that these needs are satisfied by continuous rationalization of the exploitation of the available economic resources, Political science since the 1960s.
If development is a language of growth, growth, abundance, abundance, multiplication and multiplication, it can also be defined as a conscious and enduring community process directed at an independent national administration for structural transformations and political, social and economic changes that allow for a steady rise in the capacity of society and continuous improvement of quality of life.
Development is defined as: structural change aimed at achieving a high rate of income over time and a strong impetus to overcome the internal resistance factors of the underdeveloped economy and an appropriate strategy in which the causes of payment can be provided for the structural change required by development. French economist François Perroux defines development as "the set of intellectual and social changes of a society that makes it able to gradually and sustainably expand its national income."
Jacob Vener defines it as "the style of economic planning achieved by exploiting the potential of society to reach the highest per capita income through the maximum use of economic resources that can be exploited for the benefit of society."
Through these definitions we can say that development is the set of integrated, dynamic and comprehensive multidimensional and level processes that involve radical changes in economic, social, cultural and administrative structures and structures, distributive justice for national income and the eradication of poverty in a society through condensation Formal and informal efforts, and democratic methods, and to promote this through a sophisticated technological framework, in accordance with specific strategies and realistic pragmatic plans based on the physical, natural and human resources available, in order to reach rational exploitation of this In order to achieve as much as possible the economic, social, cultural and political needs of society.
Sustainable development has led UNDP to adopt and promote its concept through human development reports since 1990, making man the true revolution of nations. Man is the essence of development. The latter must respond not only to economic, but also social and political requirements. Also, the data on human capacity building, empowerment and opportunities for human development can be linked as shown in the following figure:
Figure (1). Human Capacity Required for Human Development (Source: Abdul Salam Bashir Al-Duweibi, "Empowerment and Human Development Strategy Project in Libya",

3.2. Economic Empowerment

Empowerment began to emerge in the 1990s through the international documents on women issued by the United Nations. There was a wide spread among bodies and individuals concerned and concerned with women's issues and development. Women's economic empowerment is aimed at actively participating in decision-making circles by expanding Opportunities and alternatives. Active participation requires the development of women themselves and the development of their capacities and potentials to possess the elements of power that enable them to bring about change in their society. The sources of this power are knowledge, self-confidence and abilities. And work within the framework of the group rather than individual action.
Empowerment is primarily the self-awareness of potential capabilities and the means and tools to launch and benefit from them. Empowerment is therefore the process of granting basic opportunities to marginalized groups directly or indirectly. This includes combating any attempts to repel these opportunities. The unequal power of men and women by increasing women's self-reliance and strengthening their internal capacity through awareness-raising and capacity-building that leads to greater participation in decision-making and greater control and ultimately change the course of things, in particular the economic empowerment of women Recovery from low-paid work, and the establishment of gender equality in employment, remuneration and various economic opportunities.
Empowerment is a tool to help individuals and groups unleash their creative and productive capacities to achieve sustainable growth and development in their living conditions. More clearly, empowerment transcends any conception of democracy, human rights and participation to enable them to understand facts about their social, economic, political and cultural environment and to take the necessary steps To improve their living conditions. With the widespread use of the concept of empowerment, women began to see a development strategy that focused on the need for women to participate in the development process as an active and productive non-recipient of assistance from society. The need to organize women for themselves to become an effective political force to bring about change.
A meeting on trade as a tool for women's economic empowerment was held at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, on 23 and 24 May 2016. The aim was to discuss the policies and measures necessary for trade and trade policy to contribute fully to the economic empowerment of women. That the term women's empowerment was meant to be understood as referring to the ability of women to be effective in changing their lives and, more generally, to change the structure that made them subordinate to men. Thus, the economic empowerment of women could be understood as: Full enjoyment Economic rights and economic independence ".
The African Union, at its annual summit in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa and the 2016 city of Maqali, under the theme "2016: African Year of Human Rights, with particular focus on women's rights", given the empowerment of women as the most important economic component, That the economic empowerment of women has emerged equally as an important and sustainable aspect of accelerating the development process in developing countries. "
Second: the social and economic situation of women in Africa and the state of economic insecurity.
African women make up about half of the population, and sometimes even higher than in the African continent. However, figures and statistics point to the low level of education of African women and the fact that they are the most difficult woman in the world, especially in child support. Divorce, abandonment or other reasons. African women suffer greatly from the loss of economic security. This is manifested in poverty and the lack of sources of livelihood. Despite the great wealth enjoyed by the African continent, 59% of Africans live below the poverty line. Twenty-one African countries are classified under the food-insecure countries of 37 countries in the world. As women account for half the population of Africa, they are affected by them, which means that more than half of the continent's women are poor.
Women in Africa also suffer from less income and income from men in the same job. They are also the first victims of early termination. They are subject to forced marriage for certain cultural reasons. Women are also the first victims of gender-based violence such as rape, forced prostitution and others.
African women live under severe psychological and economic pressures because they bear the brunt of family affairs, with almost complete absence of men to improve their families' standard of living.
The role of women in Africa varies from one country to another or from one region to another according to the customs, traditions, history, culture or religion of that country or region. The role of women in North Africa differs from East and West Africa, as well as Central and Southern Africa, and its one entity does not change.
While many ILO conventions are relevant to the promotion of gender equality in the world of work, particularly through four conventions of particular importance: the Equal Remuneration Convention (No. 100) of 1951, the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111), the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention (No. 156) of 1981, the Maternity Protection Convention (No. 183) of 2000, and the ratification by 50 African States of that organization of Conventions Nos. 100 and 111, To make the ILO devote most of its work to these conventions to monitoring The implementation process and recommendations for improvements. For example, in 2010 the ILO sponsored a study on the implementation of Conventions Nos. 100 and 111 in South Africa, proposed reform of the Labor Relations Act to enforce the principle of equal pay for work of equal value, Up to 10 per cent of their annual profits in the event of non-compliance, with the support of the ILO, gender-sensitive policies have been promulgated in both Tanzania and Liberia to make their national policies more consistent with their obligations under these Conventions.
Convention No. 156 and No. 183 received a much smaller number of ratifications. Only MAL and Morocco ratified the Maternity Protection Convention, No. 183, while Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritius and the Niger only ratified the Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention No. 156, The ILO supported constituents to conduct national studies and establish awareness platforms on the economic and social benefits of improving the balance between work and family and maternity protection. Following a similar campaign conducted by Angola, the Government examined the review of its maternity protection provisions with a view to 90 days for maternity leave, lactation breaks and an additional day of annual leave for each child under the age of 14 years.
The World Bank has recently conducted two studies focusing on economic opportunities for women in sub-Saharan Africa, addressing the areas in which women work, the areas in which men work and the way women do business compared to men-created enterprises and the legal economic obstacles women face The two studies concluded that gender gaps in economic opportunities in the region were due to the question of whether women were working or not to a lesser degree than women Differences in the types of activities that women and men seek to do, and women are more likely to work in the informal sector, in smaller enterprises, and in traditional industries such as clothing and food preparation, all of which are often less profitable, The scope of women's economic empowerment by enabling more women to engage in higher-earning activities. This requires removing constraints on women's access to assets, expanding women's financial and administrative training and involving the largest number of women in the policy-making environment.
Despite continuing discrimination, the economic weight of women in Africa is increasing as initiatives are being expanded across the continent to allow for the sustainable integration of women in the economic sphere, such as the "FAFCI" in Côte d'Ivoire, established in 2012 UNIFEM has supported more than 110,000 women-led projects in a few years. UNIFEM's ambitions are numerous - increasing women's income, managing their financial independence, strengthening their entrepreneurship and fighting unemployment.
With regard to the current environment of women in Africa, the 24th African Union Summit was held in January 2015 with a focus on the next 50 years of social and economic development.
In Africa, which adopted the slogan that the year 2015 will be "Year of Empowerment and Development towards Africa's Agenda 2063", which includes the aspirations of the African Union's 2063 Agenda "Comprehensive Growth and Sustainable Development", where development is driven by people and depends on the potential of the African people, And young people.
Despite significant participation in the African informal economy, including agriculture (crop production and animal husbandry), food processing, domestic work and childcare, women are severely underrepresented in corporate ownership, management participation and the participation of the formal workforce. Wage gaps Gender is a big issue for women. More than 70% of women in sub-Saharan Africa work in the informal labor force, where the gender wage gap is 28% compared with 6% for the formal workforce.
The relationship between African women and the economy is a strange paradox globally, according to a study by Dominique Ouattara. Women work two-thirds of the working hours and produce more than half of the food, but earn only 10 percent of the total income and have less than 2 percent of the land and receive Less than 5% bank loans.
According to the latest figures released by the United Nations, women's economic activity in Africa is about 61.9%, which is higher than most other economic regions in the world, yet the proportion of women working in the non-agricultural sector is one of the lowest 8.5% What makes the question here about the outcome of these figures? They are eloquent figures of the status of women in the economy of the African continent, where they are still seen as a second-class employee, often limited to low-skilled and low-skilled jobs. As a result, women are more likely than men to be in vulnerable positions, Economic difficulties.
Data on female participation in the labor force from the World Bank Project Surveys show that although more than 50% of the population is female full-time, only 29% is the percentage of companies that have the highest percentage of females and the lowest From 15%, while the percentage of companies with a female majority of less than 12%.
The following table shows the percentages of women's participation in some African countries, where samples were selected according to a balanced geographical criterion. The percentages of women's participation in Africa are clearly shown:
Table (1). Shows the statistics of women's participation in Africa in the economy
It is clear from table (1) above that the proportion of companies that share female ownership in Angola is about 56.6% and the lowest rate recorded in Sudan is 8.2%, which may be the result of customs and traditions in each country. For companies with a large female director in Tanzania, about 14% The percentage of companies with a majority of females was 16.5% in Ethiopia, while the lowest in Sudan was 2.3%. As for the percentage of permanent employees Of females were the highest in Angola with about 51% followed by each The percentage of permanent female full-time workers in Angola was 49.5%, the lowest in Sudan was 8.8%, and the percentage of permanent part-time workers The percentage of women who are female is also 58.5% in Angola, 11.2% in Egypt and 11.6% in Egypt. This is probably due to the attempts of those countries which have higher rates than their counterparts to comply with the provisions of the Equal Remuneration Convention (No. 100) Discrimination in Employment and Occupation (No. 111), which operates the International Labor Organization With the support of the ILO, gender-sensitive policies have been promulgated in both Tanzania and Liberia to make their national policies more consistent with their obligations under these Conventions, indicating an improvement in the proportions of women in Tanzania according to the scale, The same is true for Angola.

3.3. Socio-economic Challenges for Women in Africa and Their Economic Empowerment

Although some progress has been made in some African countries to improve the social and economic conditions of African women, they still face obstacles and challenges to their participation and economic empowerment. These challenges can be addressed in the following points:
3.3.1. Employment Policies and Discriminatory Employment Practices
Women continue to suffer discrimination at work. In Senegal and Mali, for example, women earn 66% of men's work, but there is increasing rejection of discrimination. To enforce the principle of equal pay for work of equal value and to penalize companies up to 10 per cent of their annual profits in case of non-compliance. Thus, the inequality between women and men, whether social, economic or educational, affects the economic growth of many African countries. The results of the UNDP in its 2016 report on human development in Africa assess the economic implications of these gender disparities at $ 95 billion a year, reflecting policies for gender pay discrimination.
3.3.2. Lack of Supervision of Productive Resources such as Land and Property
Although accurate data are lacking, but it is estimated that women own less than 2% of land in Africa. It is clear that the lack of a commercial building or farm is a major impediment to women's economic progress. In many areas, women are robbed of land as a result of custom. For example, in Uganda, while women are allowed to own land that grows and receive their wages directly, the reality is quite different. When their husbands die or after divorce, most lose their property, Then, to her husband's husband, as custom takes precedence over the law and many women are robbed of the right to own land, although 80% of Ugandan women are agricultural workers, only 7% own their land. Which is considered an unfair challenge to women in Africa.
3.3.3. Lack of Ownership and Control of Economic Resources
Women's control over economic resources is defined as the extent to which women have access to physical economic resources such as wages, loans, capital, etc., and in-kind wealth such as land, real estate, To control these wealth for the longest period of time, and the extent of ownership of the social and economic tools and means that provide them with this permeability and control, and in this sense linked to the control of economic resources structure and structure of macroeconomic and functional role of women, It is also related to the legal and legislative structure governing conditions and conditions of work and ownership, and is associated with a similar system of social values. Thus, the ownership of means of production, capital and control of resources is one of the most important indicators of women's social status and economic strength.
3.3.4. Limited Markets
Studies show that women entrepreneurs often complain of poor demand for their products. There are many factors that limit women's access to markets, as African women are severely restricted by many factors Which are related either to their family responsibilities or to cultural practices. They often do not have market information about products and inputs and therefore rely on intermediaries who buy products at prices below the market price, and that women produce only small quantities. And originally saturated with the same kind of products and services.
3.3.5. The Social Challenge of Unequal Sharing of Family Levels between Men and Women
Studies show that still there are major social challenge of unequal sharing of family levels between men and women, where women are expected to take on the bulk of childcare and family responsibilities, due to the stereotypical portrayal of the social role or social status of women in African societies. This picture of the social role of women inevitably leads to their exclusion in one way or another from the labor market, which remains male-dominated, which is reflected in the feminization of women. Participation in the labor market.
3.3.6. African Women have been Confined to Low-paid, Low-level Jobs and Lack of Entrepreneurship
Studies have shown that while there are many female entrepreneurs in microenterprises, especially in the informal economy, they are not well represented in projects Medium and large, and the larger the size of the establishment the less likely that the woman on her head. There are more women who do jobs and jobs. Instead of waiting for a job, African women have created their own job. About 42% of small enterprises are headed by women, so the biggest challenge is business development and business expansion. Only 13.6% Of SMEs in Africa have a woman in her head (her head), so the larger the company the smaller the number of women in management positions.
3.3.7. The Absence of Peace and Security
As peace and security are the basic conditions that all people aspire to and deserve to have because everyone is looking forward to happiness and better quality of life free from poverty and humiliation, but during the last three decades, the Eid of African countries suffered from the absence of internal peace, where Millions of Africans have been victims of persecution practiced by states and their rulers, as well as flagrant violations of human rights and frequent civil wars.
And the transformation of human and material resources into wars and internal security, which has prevented attention to development and issues of equality between men and women in many African countries, which negatively affected the social and economic situation of women in Africa.
3.3.8. The Weakness of the Skills Possessed by African Women
It is believed that the total challenges faced by women are related in one way or another to the level of education and training opportunities that entitle them to enter the labor market and provide them with the new skills required by the knowledge economy market. Women are more vulnerable to the process of economic empowerment, and it is becoming more complicated for women. In light of their lack of technical expertise, their poor ability to deal with new ICTs is an important challenge facing women. But the most important technical illiteracy is the lack of effectiveness of African women in dealing with the elements of power and their determinants in the information society.
3.3.9. The Challenge of Education
The issue of women's education in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, or the discontinuation of schooling at an early stage is the most important challenge to the social and economic status of women. The illiteracy rate in sub-Saharan Africa is the highest in the world, and the proportion of women represents about two-thirds of the illiterate in Africa, which negatively affects children's education and social life, especially in terms of their economic status and level of empowerment.
3.3.10. Absence of Improved Technologies for the Preservation of Products
Such absence constitutes a barrier to their marketing, as well as the absence of near-market storage facilities, lack of access to input markets due to raw materials, and high prices of imported inputs such as chemicals, which can be a barrier to increased production.
3.3.11. The Absence of Health Security
Health problems facing women and the challenge of gender equality. Despite the adoption of several conventions and protocols that emphasize gender equality in Africa, discrimination and prejudice continue to hamper the liberalization of women in the African continent in most sectors and activities. For example, according to World Bank figures of concern in countries such as Angola, Liberia and Sierra Leone, one out of every 20 girls loses their lives during childbirth in more than 20 countries in Africa, and about 800,000 women N victims of human trafficking in Africa, not to mention the spread of HIV "AIDS", where the loss of a disease that every young man infected with HIV matched by three girls suffer the same fate.

4. Discussion

Ways to contribute to improving the socio-economic status of women in Africa and their economic empowerment
In order to improve the socio-economic status of women in Africa and their economic empowerment, there is a need to increase their attention and improve their situation through various measures and means. Here are some of the ways in which:
1. Reviewing legal and environmental frameworks and preparing programs that facilitate access to loans, financing and support for women in small and micro enterprises and the informal sector through special programs, as well as by encouraging strong linkages from the industrial sector and reviewing and harmonizing licensing procedures for formal sector projects.
2. Building a women's coalition to visit educated women, organizing workshops and lectures to raise awareness about the importance of women's role and participation in national activities.
3. Creating employment opportunities for men and women, ensuring equity in employment and distributing opportunities for workers.
4. Developing the skills of the labor force for women with continuous training and rehabilitation, in order to increase productivity.
5. Encourage women's self-employment projects through funds aimed at development and interdependence.
6. To support the active involvement of the private sector in stimulating production processes and creating new jobs for men and women. The private sector can be an engine for poverty eradication and social integration, but this requires the establishment of appropriate institutional and regulatory foundations conducive to private sector development. The private sector has to address two important issues: ensuring gender equality in employment, for example by organizing female workers, eliminating discriminatory policies and providing social protection, and providing cushion in case of economic decline.
7. To increase women's economic opportunities by expanding women's fields of work in the sense of making markets a place for women's success at the policy level, and enabling women to compete strongly in markets in terms of the ability to define strategic options and resources, the human capacity factor is the fundamental concept of the development process. The economic opportunity available to women is not limited to their capacity, but is commensurate with and supportive of these capabilities for the benefit of all.
8. Increasing the participation of women in decision-making and economic policy-making positions. The effectiveness of their participation gives them the opportunity to influence the decisions taken in their favor. The result is likely to be achieved when a large number of women attend. In shaping the country's policies, albeit with a limited role that changes social perceptions of women's decision-making capacity, encourages further initiatives and establishes women's cooperatives, giving women more opportunities to do business outside the home.
9. Establish competitive programs in Africa, namely East Africa, West Africa, North Africa and South Africa, to ensure gender mainstreaming in key policy areas such as investment, trade, employment, skills, entrepreneurship and conflict-affected economies.
10. Support for the development and collection of strategic gender data from various African countries.
11. The promotion of the participation and promotion of African women in business federations is an important platform for advocacy. Trade unions are at the crossroads of three key mechanisms for improving women's business opportunities: the provision and exchange of information and knowledge, particularly on economic rights, Advocacy for reforms educates and influences decision-makers, builds partnerships among stakeholders to share experiences and strategies, and maximizes women's voices in policy-making. Therefore, promoting women's business federations is crucial, so that To assist its members in improving business practices, improving performance and playing a more active role in policy dialogue and lobbying for reforms.
12. To improve and develop small-scale enterprise systems by directing economic policies and investments to take their hands, especially those owned by women, and to strengthen their capacities and help them to integrate into productive sectors. These small enterprises are most able to absorb and absorb the surplus of labor from which most African countries derive.
13. Adopting group funding, a method of financing business creation projects using the Internet as a conduit for linking project promoters with those who wish to invest in such projects. This practice has been popular now because of its simplicity of work, especially in light of the difficulties encountered by some sex creators in finding On financing.
Therefore, in order to achieve sustainable development and poverty eradication in Africa, all government policies and the private sector in African countries must recognize the role of women in development and economic life by providing legal mechanisms and gender equality on the ground and ending The state of marginalization suffered by African women.
Therefore, the fact that African women participate in the development of the continent requires their participation in activities and the management of resources, as well as in training workshops, to be allowed and encouraged to establish associations and federations to ensure their opportunities for economic empowerment and access to the world of work and private enterprises through which Make African women a role in development.

5. Conclusions

The inequality between men and women, whether in the educational, social, economic, administrative and political aspects, and social traditions and customs are the strongest obstacles to the economic emancipation of African women. They give weight to economic growth in many African countries. To support African women, an approach that involves systematic education for girls, combating forced labor and access to health care and social protection.


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[16]  The role of the African Union in empowering women., Accessed: 29/05/2018.
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[19]  Yatabary, A (2015) Quel est Le rôle des femmes Africaines dans le développement? (Article à l'occasion d'une table ronde à laquelle j'étais invitée sur ce sujet), voir le lien:, Accessed: 29/05/2018.
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