International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy

2019;  3(2): 58-63



Psychology of Quality of Life and Its Relation to Psychology

Aissaoui Moudjahid1, Baida Abdarrazak2

1University Blida 2, Algeria

2University of Oran, Algeria

Correspondence to: Aissaoui Moudjahid, University Blida 2, Algeria.


Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


Quality has become a target for study and research as an output or the ultimate goal of a better future for life and the society as it possesses energies of the material and the human most significant contribution. The direct interest in the quality of life for individuals needs to be continuously improved and strengthened since it is one of the most important indicators of the progress of societies. This is usually reflected in the satisfaction of the individual and the sense of happiness and the desire for life. Today, no doubt that human beings will not be confined only to their primary and essential element to address their survival needs. In reality, they perceive much beyond that and which includes everything that improves the quality of life of the individual who distinguished by God and his generosity and his preference for many who created. Quality of such as the ingredients of mental, psychological, emotional, social, religious beliefs, cultural and civilizational values, economic and financial conditions enable one to determine what things bring him happiness and contentment in life, so it must be in the life of the human person is something of quality and quality as well as the ability to rebuild and rehabilitate the self. The psychology has varied views, which resulted in a significant variation in the backgrounds and theoretical frameworks that depend on each approach or school of psychology in the interpretation of the analytical quality of multiple psychological levels. This leads us to try to discover and know what quality of life is from the point of view of psychology.

Keywords: Quality of life, Psychology, Psychology of Quality

Cite this paper: Aissaoui Moudjahid, Baida Abdarrazak, Psychology of Quality of Life and Its Relation to Psychology, International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2019, pp. 58-63. doi: 10.5923/j.ijire.20190302.04.

1. Introduction

Psychology is one of the most prominent sciences that deals with the study of human behaviour and the attempt to uncover the most important problems that hinder behaviour, from the goal of development and modification of the latter, often seek the individual to achieve the quality of his actions and contribute to the quality of his life.
The subject of the psychology of quality of life has become the focus of many researchers, especially the psychologists, which influenced their research and studies in this field. There are varied views amongst the different specialisation researchers. There are also a diversity of approaches and interpretations, on the other hand, about the concept of Quality of life. In general, it can be said that the concept of quality of life refers to the understanding of the individual to his lifestyle in the context of the social environment, and the forms of the culture he/she live in and their interdependence towards attaining their interests and desires which suites their mental state.
In light of the above, we will focus our attention on the concept of psychology of quality of life and its relationship with psychology. Also, this paper would investigate how the concept of quality of life is one of the essential concepts in psychology specifically.

2. Literature Review

2.1. History of Quality of Life

Aristotle's Ethics (384-322 BC) is one of the early sources of quality of life. He said that both the public, the rascals, and the upper class understand the good life in one way and that they are happy, but their components of happiness are different. Some people say it is also familiar for the poor to see happiness in richness. Aristotle sees that good life is a state of mind, a kind of activity, and what is modern expression is the quality of life.
Quality of life became an important priority for Western societies after the Second World War. The concept was introduced into the lexicon of vocabulary. It was used to express a life of peace, which consisted of several components: work, housing, the environment, and health.
With the beginning of the eighties onwards in the nineties and the rapid emergence of the revolution of quality and confirmed the quality of products and the quality of output, and enter quality standards and their application in many fields: industry, agriculture, economics, medicine, politics, sociology and psychological studies, one of the most important outcomes of that revolution Is to increase research interest by studying the concept of quality of life in the previous fields. (Masoudi, 2015, p. 204).

2.2. The Importance of Studying the Psychology of Quality of Life

Have not seen the quality of life as a matter of importance of psychology only in relatively late, for many years it remained the quality of life is measured by the period in which the case remains under consideration alive and the existence of the disease without any consideration of psychological and social consequences of the disease and treatment fact that medical standards are weak Link to the division of the disease or its family environment related to quality of life.
Under some psychological studies, now it assumed that the quality of life elements include bodily functions and status of psychological and social functions and symptoms related to difficult treatment. In the past decade, appeared to researchers consider the psychological and social performance, as well as an important aspect of the quality of life of patients, the disabled and people with learning difficulties as disease Researchers, are interested in psychosocial functions as important aspects in assessing the quality of life (Chile Taylor, 2008, p. 619).
As the study carried out by the point (Goodes, D, 1994) that the disabled share a strong desire to engage in their community and live independently and the desire to be considered to them and treat them Kadaan in a study on 144 disabled (122 men and 22 women) and refers to four main factors in the formation of the quality of life in American society is:
- Individual needs for love and acceptance, sex, friendship, security and health.
- Expectations that these needs are specific to the society in which they live.
- Resources available to satisfy these needs in a socially acceptable manner.
- The environmental fabric associated with these needs.
(D. Goode & D.Mithel, 1997, PP.65-75)
Also, the study of the concept of quality of life psychologically seeks to improve the health status of the individual to prepare therapeutic prevention programs and improve health care, as well as programs to intervene for the development and improvement of health, which can include self-development and optimism and the meaning of life and satisfaction.
Al-Ansari (2006) considers that the concept of quality of life is linked to two basic concepts: welfare and happiness, as well as its connection to development concepts, which are a necessity for human well-being and progress, which includes the promotion of human status in life as a result of cognitive and scientific development, (Poverty, poverty, poverty, poverty, poverty, poverty, insecurity in satisfying needs and motivations), poverty and income poverty caused by economic inequality and human development poverty caused by underdevelopment that limits individual and country sludge to the best use of their human and material resources.

2.3. The Psychological Goal of Studying Quality of Life

Psychologists dealt with QoL as an area for the study and the search for positive personality where characteristics for positive human habits and nature create from within brings in energies and possibilities without limits. The importance of the QoL meaning is that it makes life worthy and protects the personality from falling prey to the disease and the importance of living psychological well-being and psychological enjoyment as a personality.
Several reasons lead us to study the quality of life. Including the following:
- Determining the impact of disturbances on the individual's educational and personal activities and daily life will provide us with an important basis for treatments designed to improve the quality of life.
- Quality of life measures can help to identify the type of problems that arise in individuals. Such measures may reveal school difficulties associated with the type of disorder, while anxiety is associated with other types of difficulties. Such information will help to develop the required treatments.
- These measures address the impact of treatments on quality of life, for example. We may need to assess whether treatment is more harmful than the same difficulty or not, or whether it increases survival rates. In this context, the quality of life measures the impact of unpleasant treatments and identify some variables that Processors.
Life-quality knowledge can be used to compare treatments. For example, if the life-rates of two treatment methods are the same and the two methods differ in their impact on the quality of life, then we can choose the method that has the least impact on the quality of life.
Life-quality information can help decision-makers choose treatments that increase survival, while at the same time providing the best possible quality of life for the individual, and provide them with opportunities to balance the cost of treatment with their quality of life. (Chile Taylor, 2008, p. 622,623)
This attention to issues related to the quality of life is of great benefit as it helps to identify some aspects that require attention or therapeutic intervention in particular when diagnosing the type of difficulty or problem that hinders the life of the individual in achieving the quality of life.

2.4. Understanding what is Quality of Life

From a linguistic point of view, Quality is associated with the Latin word Qualitas, which means the nature of the individual or the nature of the thing, which means precision and perfection. The quality of the Oxford Dictionary means high quality or value. Quality is a set of standards for excellent performance that does not accept discussion. This indicates that individuals learn through their experience to distinguish between high quality and low quality by using A set of criteria that distinguish between the two types of quality. (Mashri, 2014, p. 223)
Quality of life is the interaction between the conditions of life and personal values and personal satisfaction with life, as is the individual's perception of his status in life in the context of his culture and community and concerns about mental health and personal beliefs. As the World Health Organization (WHO) pointed out in 1995, it describes the quality of life as an individual's perception of his or her own situation in life in the context of culture, the patterns of values in which he lives, and the extent or incompatibility of this with his goals, expectations and interests for mental health, independence and personal and social relationships. Individual self-circumstances of his life. (Lopez and Snyder, 2013, p. 782)
In 1995, Velsy and Perry introduced a three-element model of quality of life that reflects the interaction between life conditions and personal values. Specific definitions of these elements were presented as follows:
- Conditions of life: Includes the objective description of individuals and their living conditions.
- Personal satisfaction with life: It includes a sense of satisfaction with life conditions or lifestyle.
- Personal values and personal ambition: includes the relative value that the individual drops on the various conditions of objective life and the quality of life itself.

2.5. Psychological Theory of Quality of Life

The study of the quality of life is of great importance from the psychological perspective. This is due to the understanding and understanding of the economists and the meeting and their awareness of the fact that is not measured in numbers, despite the increase in growth rates and high income and improvement of living, provided that it provides the individual with well-being and satisfaction of his psychological needs and desires. For this, we will look at a range of psychological models and how to look at the quality of life in the following:
2.5.1. Definition of the School of Psychoanalysis (Freud 1856- 1939)
Freud believes that the quality of life is a sense of pleasure and happiness and relief of pain and a fundamental goal of human behaviour, and also means satisfying instincts as the principle of pleasure is the dominant principle of the operations of the psychological system, Freud believed that the instinct of life or the principle of pleasure is a motive for the permanence of life and satisfaction, The first childhood in her painful and good life is important in establishing an independent life. (Mahfouz, 2006, pp. 125-180).
2.5.2. The Definition of the Abraham Maslow Human School
In his theory, he emphasized a set of basic needs which he developed hierarchically, according to importance. The quality of life depends on the level of satisfaction of those needs. This may lead to a sense of deep happiness and a high sense of the individual's inner life. (Gepner.2003. Pp101-111)
According to the theorists in the human school, the idea of the quality of life always requires the necessary connection between two indispensable elements:
- existence of an organism.
- The existence of a good environment in which this organism lives, because the phenomenon of life comes into existence through the mutual influence between these two elements, and emphasizes theorists in this model to interpret the quality of life on the concept of self. (Bin Saleh Hamad Al-Mudhi, 2017, p. 12)
2.5.3. Definition of the World Health Organization of QoL
Quality of life means the individual's perception of his place in life according to the contexts of culture and values that live in her arms and linking them to his own goals and expectations, beliefs and interests, a concept often affected by the individual's psychological and physical state and social relations. (S Briaçon; 2010; P21)
2.5.4. Definition of Frumm on QoL
From (1980-1900) believes that mental illness is the result of the conflict between the legitimate quest of the human being to achieve his goals in life, and the existing systems and laws of his society that oppose this age. He pointed out that the quality of human life arises from its production, and the sense of human reality and concrete union with others while retaining the characteristics of his personality at the same time. It is the individual's sense of vital vitality that results from his connection to the outside world in a productive way. Frumm stressed on the social side of the human being as the basis of the quality of life and happiness as he sees that the human being by nature and the majority of his problems result from his separation and uniqueness in his community. A normal personality is a productive social personality that provides psychological pleasure. (Hassan. 2010)
2.5.5. Quality of Life and Positive Psychology
The term quality of life is one of the most modern terms in the field of psychology, which is the focus of what is known as positive psychology, which did not enter the academic track of the field of psychology until 1998 when Martin Siegman addressed the opening session of the American Psychological Association. A positive psychology branch of psychology emphasizes the study of everything that would lead to improved psychological functioning of the human being beyond the scope or limits of normal mental health. Since the beginning of life on earth, humankind has been preoccupied with answering and discussing the issue or question of human happiness: its definition, its formulations, its determinants, its effects at least since the ancient Greek civilization.
In general, positive psychology practitioners describe this science as "studying all human strengths, studying everything that would prevent people from falling into the grip of mental and behavioral disorders. In addition to studying all the individual, social, and societal factors that make human life worth living "(Abu Halawa, 2010)
Positive psychology pioneer Seligman emphasizes that positive psychology is concerned with the meaningful life and how to build a positive life for the individual and therefore focuses on the important role that certain positive variables such as quality of life, satisfaction, and other variables can play. Can have an important role in activating the strengths of the individual rather than just to study the negative factors in the individual, and at the individual level positive psychology is concerned with studying and analysing the positive features of the individual as happiness and understanding of positive emotions. (Seligman, 2002, p11)
It follows from this that all of the models were based on their psychological basis and theoretical background in interpreting the concept of quality of life. Thus, it is clear that the quality of life means that a general sense of satisfaction and satisfaction is determined by the person being evaluated. From this, we consider the quality of life as the process of integration of the physiological and psychological aspects to form the strongest indicator of attention to the level of comfort, stability and tranquillity in the arms of others with satisfaction and well-being developed in different areas of life.
2.5.6. Quality of Life Dimensions
Through the various definitions of this concept can distinguish three dimensions of quality of life, we mention in the following:
- Quality of life objective: This category includes the social aspects of the lives of individuals and provided by the material requirements of the community.
- Quality of life itself: It means the extent of personal satisfaction with life and the individual's sense of the quality of life.
- The quality of emotional life: It represents the ideal to meet the needs of the individual, and the ability to live in a spiritual and psychological consensus with himself and with his community. (Abdul Muti, 2005, p. 20)
Schallock (2004) has eight dimensions of quality of life:
- The emotional quality of life: includes a sense of security, spiritual aspects, happiness, self-concept, satisfaction or conviction.
- Relations between people: include intimate friendship, emotional aspects, family relations, interaction, social support.
- Physical quality of life: includes the physical situation and factors of social security, working conditions, property and social and economic status.
- Personal upgrading: includes the level of education, personal skills, and level of achievement.
- Physical quality of life: includes health status, nutrition, motor activity, health care, health insurance, free time, and daily activities.
Self-determinants: independence, ability to choose, self-direction, goals and values.
- Social interaction: includes social acceptance, social status, characteristics of the practical environment, integration and social participation, volunteer activity.
- Rights: include privacy, the right to vote and vote, the performance of duties and the right to property. (Khaddam Al-Mashkaba, 2015, p. 36)
From the above, it can be said that most human beings living a normal human life have a personal image of the quality of life, in which the human dimensions of the quality of life, as already mentioned, are indeed integrated. They build on their personal vision of the quality of their lives that they want to live from studying and examining the reality and thus determining their goals and expectations within the framework or context with the diligence as much as possible to improve it and enrich its bids through real concrete actions or actions and so they accept reality and do not give back to them and do not succumb to it and live in his captivity at the same time but live with him positively.
2.5.7. Quality of Life Sources
- According to the study: The year 1998 by the "Berger identified sources of quality of life as follows:
a) Personal growth is also manifested in the realization of more knowledge and the development of mental potential.
b) Appears in service and help others.
c) Interrelationship with others.
d) Living according to limited beliefs.
e) Expression and creativity through art, beauty, music, poetry and composition.
f) The physical aspects through the acquisition of property and the causes of well-being.
g) The existential orientation based on pleasure and pleasure. (JUNIPER, 1998, pp. 91-115).
2.5.8. Quality of Life Indicators
There are many indicators referred to by the researchers on the quality of life, usually defined in the light of two basic dimensions of each of them are specific indicators, namely the objective dimension, and the dimension of self, but the majority of researchers focused on the indicators of the objective dimension of quality of life and includes the objective dimension of quality of life set of indicators Such as academic working conditions, level of income, social status, economy, size of support available from the social relations network, and education. However, research findings show that the focus on objective indicators of quality of life contributes only to In a small fraction of the overall variation of quality of life.
Nahed Saleh (1990: 58) points out that the objective dimension of quality of life does not necessarily mean an improvement in the quality of life, nor does it indicate that society has moved to a better state or that individuals have become happier and more satisfied with their lives.
Al-Arif Allah (1999: 22) agrees with the above that the researchers in the humanities focus on the fact that the objective indicators in all their observable and measurable physical manifestations are no longer sufficient to express the quality of life in the strict sense. Very little in terms of perceived quality or quality of life per capita.
2.5.9. Measuring Quality of Life
The quality of life is defined as a subjective experience and can be estimated only by the examinee. Despite the need to evaluate this subjective experience, there are no standards or a systematic framework for this measurement (Trilila Dalila, 2013, p. 227).
If we want to arrive at a stable and honest quality of life measurement, it is necessary to provide tools for independent areas that absorb important aspects of quality of life. A different approach should be adopted in the design of tools to ensure consistent and honest standards across different cultures. (Lopez and Snyder, 2013, p. 778)
2.5.10. The Psychological Paradox between Quality of Life and other Quality Terms
There are usually two concepts that have the same meaning as the content of this. It should be noted that some use the term quality and the other terms of quality. The term quality of life implicitly implies the meaning of my assessment by borrowing that life is good. The term quality of life refers to the poles of evaluation. It includes the positive side or the negative side. The prevalence of the concept of quality of life is due to the definition of the World Health Organization in 1948 as a state of well being and Limited to the absence of disease, and this led to a focus on positive aspects on the basis that they are the quality of life. "(Abdul Khaliq, 2008, pp. 247-257).
2.5.11. Quality of Life Constraints
Many reasons may hinder the individual's sense of the quality of life, including:
- Life events and pressures and loss of sense of the meaning of life.
- Lack of religious faith.
- The lack of services provided to the individual and the lack of full health care for individuals.
- Lack of emotional intelligence of individuals in dealing with different situations in life.
In addition to this, there are internal and external conditions that may hinder the individual from feeling the quality of life, such as illness, negative experiences in life.
The elimination of these obstacles in terms of society is the improvement of government services and others, health education and health care, and in terms of the family is the proper upbringing of children as well as the use of emotional intelligence to deal with problems as a result of life pressures. (Bin Saleh Hamad Al-Mudhi, 2017, p. 13)

3. Conclusions and Recommendations

The concept of quality of life has been the focus of several studies in recent years by researchers in various magazines in general and in psychology in particular because of the importance of this variable, it turns out that the basic element in the quality of life is the emotional relationship between the individual and his environment, This relationship, which is mediated by the feelings of the individual, and his perceptions of perception and the rest of the psychological indicators represent the outputs that appear through the quality of life of the individual, and then can be considered the concept of quality of life through the individual's sense of satisfaction with the actual life, self-realization, and the individual's perception of the value of life Long live Thus, the quality of life represents a personal feeling for the individual, although the quality of life is affected by some material potential, but the subjective factors are the most influential in the sense of quality of life.
Based on the findings of this review, the researcher highly recommends the following:
a- Introducing the concept of quality of life in some psychology courses in the university, because this helps greatly in the students' perception of the quality of life standards.
b- Raise the motivation of researchers in various fields to discuss issues of quality and development.
c- Attempt to link the concept of quality with modern variables that enable the achievement of results useful to researchers in the field.
d- The construction of quality measures by psychological laboratories characterized by their psychometric characteristics.


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