International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy

2017;  1(1): 14-27



Exploring the Implementation of Government Work Program towards Bahrain Economic Vision 2030 with Respect to Strategic and Project Management (A Retrospective Study for the Period 2011-2014)

Hanan Khairy

Ahlia University, Manama, Bahrain

Correspondence to: Hanan Khairy, Ahlia University, Manama, Bahrain.

Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


The research aimed to explore the implementation of Government Work Program towards Bahrain Economic Vision 2030 with respect to Strategic and Project Management, which are implemented in the ministries and government organizations involved in Bahrain Government Program. The researcher applied the analytical descriptive approach and designed a questionnaire as a main resource to collect the data, by which she distributed 36 questionnaires with 100% response rate, also she did six unstructured interviews with six executives besides her own observations. It was found that there exists implementation of strategic management in the ministries and government organizations, and concluded that that there performance in the preparation phase regarding the strategic analysis was excellent with 94.5% agree rate and regarding the strategic directions was very good with 88.8% agree rate, while the performance in the implementation phase was good with 86.1% agree rate and in the evaluation and follow-up was also good with 73.9% agree rate. Also it was found that there exists that there exists implementation of project management in the ministries and government organizations which was measured by the existence of the ten project knowledge area processes in the project phases of the ministries and government organizations separately, and concluded that they have different performance degrees from an area to another. Only in two areas, which are project integration management and project time management it concluded that their performance was very good with 86.64% and 82.4% performance rate, in project stakeholder management was good with 72.2% performance rate, in project scope, project communication, project cost and project quality management was fair with 63.8%, 63%, 61.1% and also 61.1% performance rate, finally in project procurement management, project human resources management and project risk management was poor with 53.5%, 52.7% and 51.4% performance rate. It was recommended to enrich the concept of strategic management and project management to the concerned people who works for Bahrain Government Work and strengthen the ministries and government organizations knowledge in implementing the overall project management knowledge area processes.

Keywords: Government, Strategic Management, Project Management

Cite this paper: Hanan Khairy, Exploring the Implementation of Government Work Program towards Bahrain Economic Vision 2030 with Respect to Strategic and Project Management (A Retrospective Study for the Period 2011-2014), International Journal of Inspiration & Resilience Economy, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2017, pp. 14-27. doi: 10.5923/j.ijire.20170101.03.

1. Introduction

The existence of a clear future vision translated into a strategic plan creates motivation for the institutions, by which the strategic plan is considered as a SM which leads the organization so it works better, because it focuses on the energy, resources and time of each individual in the organization and push them in the same direction against achieving goals (Olsen, 2007: P:31).
Usually any country EV display the long term policies and objectives, and it is divided into work programs or short-term strategic plans of five years long, then it is divided again into shorter term annual plans which are matched with the annual financial budget of the country (Saleh, 2013, p:4).
The importance of promoting and strengthening and satisfy the different needs of the citizens in order to ensure that his psychological well-off stability, is the real key to proper building the country, and here emerges the need for number of procedures, policies, programs and projects that may achieve these needs which could be shown in a GWP (Government Work Program for the third legislative chapter, 2010, p:7), in that the government prepares a general perception of the goals of its new ministries created every specified time period, which seeks to achieve the objectives pursued by the ministry policy outlined and intends to be implemented to achieve these goals (Saleh, 2013, p:4).
Despite the fact that the importance of the GWP represents the features of the new stages of the national construction work, which aims to meet a set of aspirations and ambitions of the citizens, and that the GWP represents the strategy or road map for the country, the governments focused on the importance of having such GWP which could guide it towards the right path for the development and achievement of goals. Table 1, display examples of GWPs for some countries.
Table 1. Examples of GWP from different countries
More precisely, the government organizations play an important role in the development process in any community all over the world, which requires attention to improve their performance through the use of successful and efficient methods of modern management, including SM so that it would be able to achieve their goals and copes with the ongoing rapid environment, the SM is considered as a tool under which, senior management determine the direction of the organization and objectives of the long-term through the formulation of strategies necessary to help achieve the objectives in the light of environmental factors (internal and external), then apply the chosen strategy and control and evaluate it at the last stage (Seyam, 2010).
On the other hand, the PM is considered as the art of planning, organizing, controlling and assigning the human resources and other managing sources during the life of a project within specific time and budget, also it is an organized effort to reach a certain result, such as the construction of a new building, road construction or a huge new computer system (Schwalbe, 2007, p:7).
Since that the PM is one of the essential blocks of the GWP in Bahrain, since that it should be available by the government organizations in order to reach the BEV 2030, as we will see in this research. Both SM and PM are essential for any GWP or national strategy towards achieving any community future vision set a head in the long run.
Refereeing to the definition of strategy mentioned in (Strategic Planning Manual of the United States of Emirates, p:12), which is that the strategy is the GWP which draws its features from the leadership vision and includes a series of objectives, principles, priorities and strategic directions. Bahrain issued its government strategy which is the GWP, that forms the basis on which the government organizations plans their operational strategies by which the government sector will accomplish the EV 2030 objectives, by which It shows the ministries and other government organizations Bahrain operational plans and objectives it hope to achieve, the principles and strategic direction.
The GWP is also considered as government action plan to manage the time by which the country achieves sustainable development politically, financially and securely (H.E Sh. Hussam Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, personal communication, Mar 5, 2014).
In order to start a new journey of government Reform, and the organization of the modern state, and after the issuance of the National Action Charter, in 2002 the first BGWP for the period (2003-2006) was issued followed by BGWP for the period from (2007-2010) and then in its third version for the period (2011-2014) by PMC and MOI, which is the research study period.
Government of Bahrain took into account in all of its programs to achieve the aspirations of His Majesty King Hammad bin Isa Al-Khalifa, to implement the program within a scientific framework in which there will be an equitable distribution of development gains of Bahrain, development of the investment climate, stimulation of the private sector, raise the level of education, provision of adequate housing and continued advancement of health and social services, as well as what is required for continuous monitoring of the performance of various government sectors (Government Work Program for the third legislative chapter, 2010, p:7).
PMC and MOI are the directors of this program in all its stages (preparation-implementation and follow-up and evaluation as well), toward achieving monitoring and transparency, PMC in cooperation with MOI has launched an electronic system which links all the ministries and other government organizations projects, programs and initiatives to easy monitor the implementation process of each especially to monitor their projects from time, scope and budget specified view point.
On the other hand, the EV 2030, which was launched in October 2008 by his Majesty King Hammad Bin Isa Al- Khalifa, is a comprehensive EV for Bahrain, provides a clear direction for the continued development of Bahrains’ economy and at its heart, is a shared goal of building a better life for every Bahraini.
The launch of the vision followed four years of extensive discussions with a range of opinion leaders in the public and private sectors, including government organizations and specialized organizations, as well as international consultancies and bodies. The EV 2030 focuses on shaping the vision of the government, society and the economy, based around three guiding principles, sustainability, fairness and competitiveness.
Following the launch, the EDB initiated an on-going program of economic and institutional reform, as part of the EV 2030. The EDB led and coordinated with ministries to compile the first national economic strategy, which served as a road map to achieving the vision (, Mar 07, 2014).
Besides the EDB National Economic Strategy works the GWP in parallel towards achieving BEV 2030, although the EDB national economy strategy more concentrating on the economic issues, the GWP covers four issues. Figure 1, show the research subject.
Figure 1. The Research Subject

2. Literature Review

Bahrain Economic Vision 2030
From Regional Pioneer to Global Contender” from this logo the EV sets its goals and objectives, in order to represent an integrated view of the economic development in the Kingdom of Bahrain among several years until the year 2030.
EV was launched by His Majesty King Hammad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa on Oct 2008 with a major goal which is improving the standard of living for all citizens in Bahrain besides seeking clear directions to develop the economy and transform it from an economy which relays on oil to a stand-alone economy. The EDB is the authorized entity for the EV, which launched the first national economic strategy in coordination with ministries in Bahrain to be as a road map to achieve the vision 2030. The main objective is to increase the family real GDP by double in 2030. The EV aspiration is moving the current oil-dependent economy to a productive economy, which is a contribution of three sectors: The government which sets its bold lines, the private sector which will develop and the Bahrain citizens with high living standards and high per capita income.
The EV 2030 is elaborated by revolving around three basic principles which are: competitiveness, justice, and sustainability.
At the moment kingdom of Bahrain is seeking to use all the current opportunities to develop economic plans and activities that lead to achieving the future goals of the EV.
The Economic Vision Document
This document is set by the EDB to display the vision and the instructions which should be followed in order develop the Bahrain economy, and it is distributed as the following:
1. The need for complete reforms on local, regional and global level.
2. The basic principles of the EV, which are: Sustainability, competitiveness and fairness.
3. Ambitions: which are the ambitions of Bahrain to its economy, society and government, each point is displayed in details in the following section.

3. Bahrain Government Work Program

As was mentioned earlier that GWP is strategy or road map for the government, it contains objectives, goals and initiatives. It is a short-term plan for the government, which should lead to excite the long term vision. The GWP has taken into consideration the stakeholders needs and requirements, by which it should lead at the end to develop the country. The plans and the initiatives in the program considered to be clear direction for the implementers in government, where it is considered as the plans to what the ministries shall execute during four or five years or during a short-term, which may differs from country to country, but at the end it has a general objective toward improving the country and reach part of their visions every year. It has been found that some countries have just the same prospects with the national strategies, however, some have only the national strategies while others are having both, the GWP and the national strategies.
In Bahrain, the government has achieved many objectives since the vision 2030 was established in 2003, and up to date this achievement has indeed a positive reflect on the society and citizens.
Like any other strategy, the GWP goes through many processes and stages, this is to ensure that this complete document should lead the ministries and other government organizations in Bahrain towards development and EV 2030 in all its fields and perspectives, it goes through the preparation, execution, evaluation and follow-up.
The GWP consists of four main interlocutors. The GWP consists of four main interlocutors (Political, Economic and financial policies, Human and social development, Infrastructure), each of these interlocutors has objectives details as per the following:
1. Political level: To provide a safe and secure environment for citizens and residents, which will contribute in the political, economic and social development.
2. Economic and financial policies: Support the development of Bahrain's economy and improve its performance to enhance competitiveness, by highlighting the main achievements of the government in the economic and financial fields.
3. Human and social development: Citizens are the main goal of the development process, provide various aspects of care, support with all the services needed to ensure a decent life for all Bahraini.
4. Infrastructure: Push forward the process of development, economic and commercial activities, provision of appropriate infrastructure to attract local and foreign investment as well and to ensure better quality of life for all citizens (GWP for the third legislative chapter, 2010, pp:7-8).

4. Strategic Management

The strategic planning conscious in any society is one of the most important pillars of economic development and scientific progress and is also considered the most important ingredients for success in all sectors of society where stems from answering the following questions: Where are we now? Or what is our Mission?, Where we would like to go? Or what is our Vision? And How are we going to get there? Or what is our strategy?
Strategic planning plays very important role in determining visions and future objectives, based on studying the reality in all its aspects such as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Then, designing practical programs which will help the organizations or governments to move toward accomplishing its future visions and targets.
While, formulation, implementation and evaluation are the main steps of SM process, David (2011) said that stages starts from the formulation of strategy and then working based on concrete measures to achieve and develop it, until reaching the final stage of evaluation, and in spite of the fact that these phases of SM are successful, the companies should not stop at this point, but continuously improves themselves (David, 2011, p: 288).
The management strategy is based on the assumption that the planning cycle is not sufficient to deal with the rapid rate of change that occurs in the environment faced by the organization. For the alignment between strategic surprises, threats and opportunities, the strategic decisions need to be prepared out of the planning cycle.
There is no doubt that this, highlights the need for continuous systems based on actual information in addition to periodic analysis. Also, the concept of SM not necessarily accept the environment as it is, the role of the SM then is how to adapt and react in this towards environment changes, this means that, the government's policies, consumer needs, technological developments can be influenced on and perhaps even controlled by the presence of an innovative, creative, and effective strategy (Al-Mursi and Jebah 2007, p:27).
SM studying field considered wide attention in the last three decades of the twentieth century in response to environmental influences and pressures faced by the enormous business organizations in that era.
(Al-Mursi et al., 2007, p:20) strategy defined by these authors as a perception of the organization for the expected relationship between the organization and its environment, so that it shows the types of processes needed in the long term and to what extent the organization should go and what are its objectives and goals that must be achieved (Al-Mursi et al., 2007, p:21).
SM is also a process which contains designing, executing and evaluating strategies set by top managers that helps the organizations accomplish goals and mission (Seyam, 2010; Malutan, 2013), while (Al-Najjar, 2009) defined it as appointed trends and strategic tasks of the organization, which leads the organization from its current position to the future position by using the four analysis, which seeks to maximize the competitive positions and eliminate weaknesses in order to control the opportunities and address the challenges (Al-Najjar, 2009, p:124; Malutan, 2013).
Al-Daher (2009) defines SM as the perception of an organization for the future (it’s position and what will be in the future) in the long run, and this perception forced the organization to design its mission and define its goals and objectives and the means that will be followed to reach this future, and it defines also how it will deal with its internal and external environments, so that they it could then clarify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that faced by the organization, and all of this aims to enable the organization to take strategic decisions in the long run and evaluate and review these decisions (Al-Daher, 2009, p:50).
So, SM is a process of the strategy administration which shows how to manage the available resources to reach the future in an accurate way.
Stages of Strategic Management or Planning
Almost all the stages are the same in the general overall phases or steps, but it differs in the stages under each general stage.
Strategy could be managed under 4 stages as (Al-Daher, 2009, pp:16-18) mentioned as follow:
1- Analysis stage and environment monitoring.
2- Strategy formulation stage.
a. Vision, mission, objectives, strategy and policies.
3- Strategy execution.
4- Evaluation and controlling.
There are lots of strategic planning models, one of the models is the general model which consists of:
1. Specify the mission: we are existed to provide activities needed by sample of buyers as they like.
2. Specify the vision: How will the world be after 10 years from now? What will be our position that time? Do we like to be in the front? And how?
3. Determine the Critical Success Factors: The importance of deciding the important elements to reach the vision.
4. Assessment of the Present: How much of the critical success factor is available for us now? How the external environment is affecting us?
5. What are our Strategic Objectives: What should we do to achieve success? What we got now? And what are our required objectives we need to accomplish in order to eliminate the current Gap?
6. Tactical Steps: What is the most appropriate way to reach critical objectives.
7. Achievement Plans: what are the needed objects towards implementing the strategic plan? And who will do what?
Total Quality Management tools and ISO are used as well by SM teams in regular meetings in order to build the strategic plan (Al-Najjar, 2009, pp: 235-236).
While (Hamooda, 2012), determined the stages of SM as follow:
1- Get ready for preparing the strategy.
a. Analyzing the current situation
i. Externally (to determine the opportunities and threats).
ii. Internally (to determine the strengths and weaknesses).
2- Set the strategic plan (vision, mission, objectives and strategies).
3- Implement the strategy.
4- Evaluation and follow-up.
Seyam (2010) specified the stages of SM as:
1. Stage of preparing the strategic plan.
Readiness for planning.
strategic analysis of external and internal environment.
Specify the organization direction and its future vision.
Determine the strategic objectives.
Determine the strategic alternatives.
Set the strategic and operational plans.
2. Stage of implementing the strategy.
3. Stage of evaluation and follow-up.
Al-Dujani (2011) defined the stages as follow:
1- Phase one: preparation:
Strategic analysis
Strategy formulation
Set the strategy
2- Phase two: strategy implementation.
Set short-term objectives
Set the execution programs
Set the financial budgets
3- Phase three: Strategy monitoring and evaluation.
As what is shown above that, almost all set the same stages but it differs slightly in organizing the steps, so for my research I chose to define the stages of the SM process as three main steps which are:
1- Preparation phase:
i. Strategic analysis.
ii. Determine the strategic directions (vision, mission and objectives and strategy).
2- Implementation phase
3- Evaluation and follow-up phase.

5. Project Management

In this arena, the management is playing a fundamental role in achieving goals and objectives by providing the best quality with minimum effort and lower costs, and the PM is considered as an extension to the adjusted managerial concepts of the organizations in case of projects in its different phases especially the most important phase which is the (execution phase) that the success or failure of the project is depends on.
Performing effective PM has been a relevant topic since the need for the discipline in the information technology arena was first identified.
PM is the art and science of coordinating the human and financial resources during the project life cycle by using the technology towards achieving the project objectives and employing the accumulated experience to plan and schedule the project by a strong control efforts.
“Generally, the aim of project management is to facilitate the projects to reach the predefined goals of with employing knowledge, skills, tools and techniques. Therefore, project management is only could be achieved by a combination of management through different levels of project ranging from the early phases of initializing, planning and designing to execution phases and supervisory and control tasks”.
Sorooshian, Ismail, Ibrahim, Mansor and Siali (2013)
What Is A Project?
There were many definitions for “project concept”, which are based on the persons’ background and the purpose of issuing the project. The British encyclopedia Defined it as effort which takes two days or more to be accomplished toward satisfying certain goal in attachment with economic, engineering and administrative activities. While the American encyclopedia of industrial engineering has the same definition but it differs in the period which specified it by 5 days (Al-Ali, 2009, p:23).
So, the project is an effort to accomplish certain goals to achieve the organization requirements and it has a start and end date. (Al-Ali, 2009, p:25) also defined project as group of tasks assigned to accomplish a certain goal, and it has a project life cycle, and changes within each phase could happen which lead the organization and team work to change as a result of this.
Project elements:
1. Project description, by which all the factors and characteristics of the project that can cause a significant impact on environment.
2. Project plan, which describes clearly the objective of the project, the market ability to accept this new project, the market niche and their characteristics, the competitors and the project priorities.
3. Project estimated time, where the beginning time and ending time to complete the project is determined.
4. Project budget and Plan of estimated expenses, where the estimation of the expected revenues and expenses for a specified time period is done.
5. Determine the required quality standards indicators, where any quality standards that the project will follow is determined.
6. Determine the risks and uncertainty, such as accidents caused by breakdowns or work problems, traffic accidents and natural disasters or any factors that may affect the project objectives which are out of control of the project managers (Al-Ali, 2009, p:30).
Schwalbe (2007, p:8) mentioned that the project to be successful it should have a balance between three main things which are called (The triple constraint, which are Scope, time and cost that are considered limitations in the PM).
Project Management knowledge Areas
Project management knowledge area is the main capabilities that project managers must develop, which leads the organization to accomplish its goals, The Guide to the PM Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), which is published by the PM institute- “An international professional society for project managers founded in 1969” (Schwalbe, 2007, p:33)- The guide is an important source for those who want to know about the PM in details.
The (PMBOK® Guide fifth edition, p:60) shows 47 project management process which are grouped into ten knowledge areas that display the important concepts, terms and activities that should be applied by the project teams in order to have a successful project management process.
Ÿ These ten areas are as follow:
1. PIM, is the comprehensive function that affects and affected by all the other knowledge areas and it is considered as the most important project knowledge area which ties together all the other areas.
2. PSM, which defines and manage all the required jobs in order to execute the project in a successful manner.
3. PTM, which is specified in the time required to complete the project.
4. PCM, which deals only with the project budget which includes preparing and managing).
5. PQM, which ensures the quality of the project according to the needs specified by the stakeholders.
6. PHRM, which provide how to use effectively the people involved in the project.
7. PCOM, which deals with all the project information including data and documents.
8. PRM, which identify all the risks associated with the project.
9. PPM, which deals with goods and services from outside the performing organization.
10. PSTM, which identifies the project stakeholders and their expectations.
Notice that, project scope management, project time management, project cost management and project quality management are considered as essential areas, while the rest are facilitating areas (Schwalbe, 2007, p:13).
Project phases
Regarding the number of project phases -that will be discussed in details in the next section, there were bit differences among the authors, some said its 5 stages and others said 4, while the names are also little bit different but it leads at the end to the same meaning, for example:
Schwalbe (2007, pp:80-81); Lewis (2009, pp281-283) mention that the project management process groups include:
1- Initiating processes.
2- Planning processes.
3- Executing processes.
4- Monitoring and controlling processes.
5- Closing processes (as it is shown in figure 2)
Figure 2. Level of activity and overlap of process groups over time
While, (Al-Ali, 2009, pp:34-41) mentioned the stages as:
1- Conception phase.
2- Development and design phase.
3- Implementation phase.
4- Termination and operation phase.
Also, four stages are identified for the projects by ( which are:
1- Identify phase.
2- Plan phase.
3- Execute phase.
4- Close phase.
Table 2, shows the processes that should be followed in each project phase, that once they are all implemented then the project may successes.
Table 2. Project management process group and knowledge area mapping
More information are available regarding each knowledge area processes in details in the (PMBOK® Guide fifth edition, 2013).

6. Performance in Organizations

Main focus for the development of performance in government organizations is measuring its performance, as that without the knowledge of knowing the shortcomings and strengths the institution can’t improve its performance. Also, measuring the government performance enable to achieve sustainable development and improving the quality of the lives of citizens (Salah, 2011).
Measuring the government performance will show how effective is the ministries or government organizations are in order to accomplish its goals and satisfy citizens by providing effective and efficient services, all so that the government could reach its vision which was set.
Since that, the overall performance of any organization is the outcome of the results integration of the organization work in light of the internal and external interactions, and it consists of three types:
1- The personal performance.
2- The departments performance.
3- The organization performance (Al Tawaijri, 2012).
While, on government level the types will be only two:
1- The ministries or government organizations performance.
2- The government performance (Al Tawaijri, 2012).
What Is Performance?
Malutan (2013) defined Performance as “is the extent to which tasks are fulfilled in the position of a civil servant and refers to the contributions they bring to the fulfillment of public authority goals.”, and it is achieving the objectives by using the resources efficiently and effectively, also the corporate performance required concentrating on unique elements that distinguish the organization from others, these elements are considered as the focus for assessment and it contains the financial and non-financial indicators and measurement of the tangible and non-tangible resources, also it contains the strategies, processes and human resources related to the corporate performance (Ayesh, 2008, p:44).
Performance Measurement
Performance measurement is the correct measure which specifies all the factors affecting the progress towards the objective or goal, and measuring the capability of each factor.
(Al-Daher, 2009, p:180) and this process is considered as a basic process of other administrative processes taken by the organization and as their importance level, such as decision making processes and building a team work process (Al-Daher, 2009, p:181).
Performance measurement in government
Government organizations need a tool which could enable them to measure their performance efficiency and effectiveness in doing the activities and processes toward accomplishing their specified objectives and serving the community. Also, the tool needed should enable the comparison between the actual and targeted results, so this process is called performance measurement in government.
Importance of performance measurement
As (Al Tawaijri, 2012) mentioned some points which are:
1. Shows clear base of clear goals which are able to be measured.
2. Enable the organization to take the corrective and preventive actions on the right time.
3. Assist in the preparation and review of the budget.
4. Does the role of the administration to achieve continuous user satisfaction, exceed expectations and improve the quality of services provided.
5. Determines the units to be measured so that the performance measurement system units in the government which are responsible for providing the services are not affected.
6. Avoid the problem of lack of realism in setting goals.
Al-Daher (2009, p:181) said that the performance measures are considered as a clear draw map which shows how far or near you are from a specific objective.
Performance measurement tools
Performance measurement (May 21, 2014), defined performance measurement tools as follow:
1. A logic model, which relates each activity to its resource, by using (ABC/ABB/ABM).
2. Quality Management Programs, like:
i. Baldrige National Quality Program, which measures businesses in seven categories.
ii. EFQM, which measures business performance in nine categories.
iii. Six sigma.
iv. Total quality management.
3. The BSC, which consists of a strategy map that is considered as a special kind of logic model which measures the organization performance from four perspectives which are, the financial, the customer, the internal process and the growth perspective, and it links the measures with the indicators.
4. The Performance Dashboard, which allows easy monitoring of KPIs, by providing access to performance information.
5. Data collection Strategy, is a framework which supports the collection and reporting of performance information, and it should identify and document all the information regarding the data.
While Badiru (2013, p:81) mentioned that Performance measurement tools are:
1- Concept of key performance areas
Bardiue defined the key performance areas as the important few class or dimensions of performance of an organization, while the key performance indicators (KPI) are used as a tool to measure the performance of each KPA, and that KPA are constant while KPI might change as the organization strategy changes.
2- Balanced scorecard
Bardiue said “While it has long been recognized that organizational performance is multidimensional, the practice of measuring multiple performance dimensions was popularized by the introduction of Kaplan and Norton’s (1992) Balanced Scorecard.”
BSC is considered as the first strategic planning and measuring system which translates the vision and strategy of an organization to a comprehensive set of performance measures, which are used to evaluate the organization performance from four aspects which are, learning and growing perspective, internal business process perspective, customer perspective and financial perspective, (Markiewicz, 2013, p:158) said that the BSC is the commonly used method to measure the execution process of the organization strategy.
3- Baldrige criteria.
As Performance measurement mentioned in the point of quality measurement program that Baldrige National Quality Program, that performance measurment is considered as a tool, also Bardiue (2013, p: 82) mentioned that “A widely accepted performance dimensions framework that is updated bi-annually is the Results category of the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, 2013). This framework consists of five items that may be thought of as performance dimensions: product and process results, customer-focused results, workforce-focused results, leadership and governance results, and financial and market results.
4- Sink’s seven criteria.
Bardiue (2013, p: 84) said that Dr. Scott Sink suggested that the performance of an organization can be described into seven criteria’s as follow:
1- Effectiveness.
2- Efficiency.
3- Quality.
4- Productivity.
5- Innovation.
6- Quality of work life.
7- Profitability.

7. Hypothesis

Before the date of formation of the new cabinet of Bahrain, a final report was released by Government of Bahrain on Nov 30, 2014 as the last report in 2014 and was published in the Official Gazette, it show that the proportion of the government implementation rate of completing its projects reached 81% in comparison to Dec 2013 which was 72% and Dec 2012 which was 53%, on the level of the GWP four interlocutors which are, the political, the economic and financial policies, the human and social development and the infrastructure.
So, the research will focus on exploring the reasons behind achieving only 81% achievement rate with respect to the two most influences to the efficiency of BGWP performance, which are the SM and PM in the ministries and government organizations which are involved in the GWP, by which whenever it has a strong management then it will enable the GWP to achieve the highest achievement rates and high efficient performance, thus contributing to achieving BEV 2030 successfully (Akhbar-alkhaleej, Nov 30,2014). It leads to H₁: There exists implementation of strategic management in the ministry or government organization which raises efficiency of Bahrain Government Work Program performance towards Bahrain Economic Vision 2030. Which has sub hypothesis as follow:
H₁₁: There exist strategic analysis of external and internal environmental analysis and achieves implementation of strategic management in the ministry or government organization.
H₁₂: There exist strategic directions (vision-mission-objectives-strategy) and achieves implementation of strategic management in the ministry or government organization.
H₁₃: There exists implementation phase and achieves implementation of strategic management in the ministry or government organization.
H₁₄: There exist evaluation and follow-up phase and achieves implementation of strategic management in the ministry or government organization.
While H₂: There exists implementation of project management in the ministry or government organization which raises efficiency of Bahrain Government Work Program performance towards Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, which has one sub hypothesis which is:
H₂₁: There exist knowledge area processes in the project phases and achieves implementation of project management in the ministry or government organization, see figure 3, which shows the hypothesis model. See Figure 3.
Figure 2. The research hypothesis model

8. Data and Methods

This research focuses on EXPLORING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT WORK PROGRAM TOWARDS BAHRAIN ECONOMIC VISION 2030 WITH RESPECT TO STRATEGIC AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT in ministries and government organizations involved in BGWP, A survey is used in this study to collect primary data which consisted of three main parts, the personal information, the SM part and the PM part, and six unstructured interviews with executives in GWP, in SM and in PM also the researchers own observations about the GWP follow-up electronic system is used. The data were processed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
Research Variables
The research variables are:
(1) Dependent Variable.
(2) Independent & Dependent Variable.
(5) Independent Variables.
Table 3. Research Variables Sources
Steps of data analysis
Using the Likert scale in part two the SM of the questionnaire to measure the variables, respondents were asked to provide evaluations as follow: (5) for strongly agree, (4) for agree, (3) for neutral, (2) for disagree and (1) for strongly disagree, While for part three the PM, answers of yes, no and don’t know were required. Percentages, frequencies and means, was used mainly to know the frequency of a variable which helps the researcher to describe the research population. It was used to describe the research population and in part two the SM and part three the PM of the questionnaire as well In order to get the overall result of implementing each sub hypothesis, the average was calculated for each answer by adding the percentages, then based on this average the number of the ministries and government organizations was calculated by applying this formula:
No of ministries & government organizations= (Sum of the percentages/36)*100
The research statistical population consisted of all the ministries and government organizations involved in the GWP which are (38) according to the GWP Follow-up electronic system on April 2014. Despite that the listed ministries and government organizations are (38), 2 were excluded because it has no available information in the electronic system. The researcher used the Census to collect the data from the ministries and government organizations and (36) questionnaires were distributed to the research sample and the sampling unit was the responsible authorized persons to provide information about the ministry or the government organization about the GWP. The researcher got (36) responses with 100% response rate.

9. Results and Discussion of Findings

Validity & Reliability
For the questionnaire validity the trustee validity was used, which was a group of (6) judges that were experts in the strategic and PM field. The researcher responded to their opinions and she did what was needed from delete, add or edit in the light of what was suggested, then it gets the questionnaire in its latest version, while for reliability the Cronbach's Alpha test was used for a pilot study of 17 respondents and the results are shown as follow:
Table 4. The Reliability Test Result of the pilot study
Results of t-test for the first hypothesis:
The first objectives of this study was to find out whether the implementation of SM in the ministries and government organizations raises the efficiency of GWP performance towards BEV 2030, the findings are shown in table 5.
Table 5. Findings of Implementation of SM in the ministries and government organizations
It was found that there exists implementation of SM in the ministries and government organizations but with different performance rates for each sub objective as it is shown in column 3 from table 2 with the number of ministries and government organizations implementing each variable in column 4, and that the mean for all variables was > the average value which is 3, the t-values were + and all were > the t-critical 1.684, and the sig. was .000 which is < .05, which means that the sub hypothesis H₁₁, H₁₂, H₁₃ and H₁₄ are accepted and then H1 is Accepted.
Results of t-test for the second hypothesis:
The second objectives of this study was to find out whether the implementation of PM in the ministries and government organizations raises the efficiency of GWP performance towards BEV 2030, the findings are shown in table 6.
Table 6. Findings on implementation of PM in the ministries and government organizations
It was found that there exists implementation of PM in the ministries and government organizations but with different performance rates for each project knowledge area as it is shown in column 3 from table 3 with the number of ministries and government organizations implementing each project knowledge area in column 4and that the mean for all variables was > the test value which was 0, the t-values were + and all were > the t-critical 1.684 and the sig. was .000 which is < .05, which means that the sub hypothesis H₂₁ is accepted and then H2 is Accepted.

10. Conclusions

The research show that the existence of SM and PM in the ministries or government organizations plays an important role that affects the efficiency of any GWP, since that these are considered as important blocks which consists the GWP. Besides the vision of the country, the road map to achieve any country vision must be clear to all stakeholders, whether they were local, private sectors or citizens. If the contents or blocks of the GWP were strong and works efficiently then this will certainly leads at the end to satisfy the long term goals and objectives that any country wish to achieve.
The research concluded that performance rates of implementing the SM in the ministries and government organizations were as follow:
Table 7. Classification of performance of Implementation of SM in the ministries and government organizations
Also, the performance rates of implementing the PM in the ministries and government organizations were as follow:
Table 8. Classification of performance of implementation of PM in the ministries and government organizations
While the overall result for implementing both, the SM and PM in the ministries and government organizations are shown in table 9.
Table 9. Overall result of implementation of both SM and PM in the ministries and government organizations


BGWP (Bahrain Government Work Program), GWP (Government Work Program), BEV (Bahrain Economic Vision), EV (Economic Vision), PMC (Prime Minister’s Court), MOI (Ministry of State for Implementation), MOF (Ministry of Finance), EDB (Economic Development Board), SM (Strategic Management), PM (Project Management), BSC (Balanced Scorecard), PIM (Project Integration Management, PSM (Project Scope Management), PTM (Project Time Management), PCM (Project Cost Management), PQM (Project Quality Management), PHRM (Project Human Resources Management), PCOM (Project Communication Management), PRM (Project Risk Management), PPM (Project Procurement Management), PSTM (Project Stakeholder Management).


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