Human Resource Management Research

p-ISSN: 2169-9607    e-ISSN: 2169-9666

2018;  8(2): 34-41



Motivation Effect on Human Resource Management Performance in Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority

Khairi Mohamed Omar1, Ahmed Mohammed Arbab1, Khalid Mohammed Abdulrahman2

1College of Administrative Science, Applied Science University, Kingdom of Bahrain

2Inspection Manager at Labour Market Regulatory Authority, Kingdom of Bahrain

Correspondence to: Khairi Mohamed Omar, College of Administrative Science, Applied Science University, Kingdom of Bahrain.


Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


This empirical study aims to investigate the motivation element’s effect on human resource management performance in the Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority. Questionnaires as the main tool were applied to collect the targeted data from the Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority employees. Out of 384, 196 questionnaires were distributed representing the sample size of the study. The total returned and valid questionnaires were 103 presented 52.6% of the responds rate. The Statistics software package SPSS 22, was used in order to analyse the obtained data. The findings of this research paper indicated that monetary rewards, training and team building have a strong and positive relationship significantly affected an employee’s performance.

Keywords: Motivation, Human Resource Management Performance, Bahrain Market Regulatory Authority

Cite this paper: Khairi Mohamed Omar, Ahmed Mohammed Arbab, Khalid Mohammed Abdulrahman, Motivation Effect on Human Resource Management Performance in Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority, Human Resource Management Research, Vol. 8 No. 2, 2018, pp. 34-41. doi: 10.5923/j.hrmr.20180802.02.

1. Introduction

Rewards, either monetary or non-monetary, as well as employees' training and organisation team building process, are the most effective keys popular of any existing/emerging either profit or non-profit organization. However, it is the essential aim of any organisation to maintain the continuity of the work in an influential manner. Indeed, the motivation elements are to help organizations to continue the improvement of their outcomes and performance, but, what does motivation mean. In general, it is a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates with work-related efforts then determine its direction, intensity, and persistence. It is the methods and procedures being applied by the organisation that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and continuation of efforts towards the achievement of the organisation's goal.
Motivation is finding a need inside the employees and help to achieve it in a smooth process. Motivating the staff leads to broadening their skill to meet the organizational demands. Each branch manager should have the responsibility to work with the staff to find out their individual needs and put them side by side to the organization needs. Managers might look at the staff dissatisfaction so it might work as a guidance for them to explore the need of the staff and start with it to motivate them and attract them to perform better. Motivation drives human beings to reach their goals and organizational goals through every challenge and constraint they face in their workplace; considering it as an advantage to go ahead in the direction they have put for themselves. The need of achievement always results in a desire to make an extra effort to have something done better, and have the desire for success.
In general, the needs of internal motivation for employees is to find and help achieve an easy process. It is important to encourage employees to expand their capacity to meet the demands of the organization. Organizions leaders and manager, have to work side by side on their individual needs and the needs of the organisation should be responsible for staff to work with them, and encourage managers and staff to explore the need for a good start to attract them to deal with any work dilemma the might face, as well as a guide. They face every challenge in the workplace and motivation that drove people to achieve their goals and objectives of the organization; considered as an advantage for themselves obliged to follow the specified address. Every time they need to achieve something better and have a desire to succeed, the desire to try.
The manager should motivate the employees to get things done through them without asking them what to do. Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, results from the attainment of externally administered rewards including pay, materials, possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others. Hamner and Hammer (1976), have carried out research on the behaviorist tradition of changing behaviour by manipulating extrusive contingencies, Maslow (1943) addressed similar needs.
The current paper aims to study the effect of motivation elements that were used in the organisation in the human resource management performance in Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority. The Labour Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA) is a government body with a corporate identity that is endowed with full financial and administrative independence under the authority of a board of directors duly chaired by the Minister of Labour (Labour Market Regulatory Authority website, 2016). As Market Regulatory Authority origination, training, competition and increased regulation by the government usually shape some challenges to the Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority. These elements could have an effect on employees’ performance. Dealing with demotivated and overworked is one of the most common challenges that institution’s management. This is the essence of this study.

2. Literature Review

Motivation has a very vital role in any organisation performance, it is the most powerful engine that could influence positively on job performance. It has been reported in the marketing field of business that, salespeople whom more motivated by the needs for achievement, relationships, and power than salespeople from Eastern cultures (Moberg, Leasher, & Moberg, 2011). In general, people think that motivation is just the way of doing things this way encouraging them with either way training rewards and so on; where in reality it is more than this, motivation could be something that motivating people; it is kind of the engine of doing things do anything gets in the way that you believe will return positively in your performance. So it makes you feel better and that's fine or on your way of living all doing things however as people of leads by their needs.
Also, money whether in the form of wages, piecework or any other incentive pay, bonuses, stock options, company-paid insurance, or any of the other things that may be given to people for performance, are important. The way to ensure that money has meaning, as a reward for accomplishment and as a way of giving people pleasure from accomplishment, is to base compensation as much as possible on performance (Koontz and Weihrich, 1990; Edwin, 1993).

2.1. Theoretical Literature Review

When it comes to the theoretical perspective of motivation, the motivation literatures is very rich with a lot of reports and results, there are a lot of work has been done regarding the motivation studies. This section tries to review some of these views theoretically:
2.1.1. Monetary Rewards in the Perspectives of Expectancy Theory and its Relation with Performance
The expectancy theory is about the understanding and explaining what motivates individuals in the place of work. However, according to Victor Vroom, (1964), as the first scholar who develop an expectancy theory with direct application to work place settings, individuals are usually motivated whenever strong effort are applied will drive to good performance therefore to good performance which will lead to desirable prizes and rewards. Porter and Lawler (1968), Pinder, (1987), have expanded this theory and though to be more generalized. Individual's behavior within organizations still under a lot of great efforts and research. The cornerstone of this theory is individuals’ efforts and performance are highly correlated; where the fordable efforts by those individuals will result in better rewards, and of course since these rewards satisfy individuals; will, of course, lead to worthwhile efforts. Therefore, good and appreciated rewards (e.g. monetary rewards) will lead to better performance. The base structure of this theory illustrated in below figure (1):
Figure 1. Expectancy Theory
However, it is important for any organization to put in main the work valence when it comes to the strength of an employee’s preference for a particular reward; which could be occurred by increasing for instance of salary, promotion, further the degree of peer acceptance into the organisation, recognition by supervisors. This work valences can be positive or negative, in the sense of employee have a strong preference to achieve an additional benefit, therefore, this probably could be called positive valences and so on. According to the expectancy theory, cognitive process which employees go through are to make choices among different voluntary responses. The individuals usually expect that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task. The attractiveness of outcomes varies from one individual to the other different outcomes are more attractive to different people. Employees underestimate how powerful a motivator pay is to them. Financial incentives almost always have a stronger impact on motivation than other sorts of outcomes.
However, view studies have highlighted this assumption in terms of the relationship between monetary rewards and job performance. However, there are mismatched results reported in this regards, it is not confirmed yet in terms of the government sector to be generalized especially in GCC. several studies conducted in this regards concluded that high-value rewards increased performance when they were presented subliminally, while this performance benefit vanished when high-value rewards were presented consciously (Bijleveld, Custers, & Aarts, 2014).
Vroom suggests that motivation, expectancy, instrumentality, and valence are highly related one to another. Therefore, it is very important for leaders to consider these elements in order to maintain a motivated staff.
Figure 2. The motivated equation (Vroom, 2000)
2.1.2. Goal Setting Theory
The Goal-setting theory looks at the goals as the fundamental driver of the intensity and any effort persistence. Any specific and difficult goals result in higher performance than no goals, easy goals, or “do your best” goals. People use shape self-set goals in order to internalized goals to monitor their performance.
However, the theory has suggested that there are some Moderator variables in goal setting which are more effective when people are provided with information about their progress such as feedback, Task Complexity, and goal Commitment. Overall, those specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance. However, the relationship between person goals and performance will remain depends on the commitment of the goal.
2.1.3. Equity Theory
The equity theory, this theory suggests that employees create a “mental ledger” that tallies their contributions to the job with the rewards they get from the job. The equity theory views that, equity distress occurs when there is any kind of imbalance in ratio triggers. The ratio in this ledger (outcomes/inputs) is compared to a similar ratio for a comparison other act...
The equity theory, suggested some an alternative means of restoring balance in an inequitable situation is to change the comparison other. Internal comparisons occur within the same company. Where, the external comparisons occur outside the company. It might some companies try to deal with pay equity issues by enforcing pay secrecy policies.

2.2. Motivation and Job Performance

There are several factors that might affect employees performance, some of these factors are within the organization and possible to control them, where the other are external factors and difficult to be controlled sometimes. These factors which for example human resources, environment and capital influence how organization performs. The motivating force with the strongest performance effect is self-efficacy/competence because people who feel a sense of internal self-confidence tend to outperform those who doubt their capabilities. There is a lot of research has been conducted regarding employees motivating and its relationship/effects with performance. Furthermore, many theories were designed in this regard, and many still used as guidelines such as Herzberg’s theory of motivation (1959). Also, difficult goals are the second most powerful motivating force people who receive such goals outperform those who do not.
However, empirical evidence has reported that, in ordere for the employees to perform well they can be motivated whether intrinsically and extrinsically at the same time to perform (Nduka, 2016). Actually, people in work they are in some extend motivated either intrinsically and extrinsically or both (Amabile, 1993). Nduka, (2016) conclude that, by claiming that intrinsic factors can or may contribute to a greater length to employee motivation than extrinsic factors. Many researchers discussed that alone rise in extrinsic factors does not contribute to a rise in performance. On the other hand, to extrinsically motivate employees, the organization needs to reach high on a commitment to supervisors and peers, salary and job security. It is significant that managers supply all job characteristics, since it will give way to high employee performance (Nduka, 2016). Nevertheless, these elements should be discussed and studied in terms of its correlation where it is not infinite result in this regard. Where the motivation elements is discussed in several theories, and since this study focuses on the motivation elements of employees, the following discussion discusses the intended motivation elements to be studied in this study:

2.3. Training and Performance

There are lots of efforts have been done in relationships with individual’s training and orgnisation Performance. Well, training still will remain to be a priority of any origination, it is indeed one of the magnificent tools that managers must focus on and use whenever and wherever is possible. Proper training could enhance the ability of employees and distinguish as well as build the bridge between their individual performance and goals and organizational aim and then meet the organisation's vision of favorable performance. The analysis shows a positive significant relationship between them and the results reveal that the more the employee gets training, the more efficient their level of performance would be (Hafeez, 2015; Jan & Hashim, 2014).
Given the importance of training, it does not come as a surprise that various approaches to finding a successful training pattern exists. For example, some studies (Arthur et al., 2003; Burke et al., 2006) stress the importance of training contents and teaching methodology. In these studies, the expected training outcomes are in line with the well-known Kirkpatrick (1998) four-level training evaluation model with level 1 referring to trainees’ emotional responses, level 2 to the knowledge acquired by trainees, level 3 to trainees’ behavioural changes and level 4 to the influence of training on company performance. The Kirkpatrick model has significantly influenced the debate on the quality, evaluation, and meaning of training, especially among practitioners (Giangreco et al., 2010). However, training-related debates “have been largely ignored by the research community” (Giangreco et al., 2010, p. 163).
However, supervisor training usually has an impact on employee self-efficacy and motivation and ultimately affected their reaction, learning and transfer motivation (Tai, 2006). Tai, (2006), reported that training framing has a significant positive impact on the employees training motivation and training self-efficacy. Where there is a lack of study regarding post training accountability and organizational climate and how could these elements effect on employees performance.
Employee training is a tool that managers can utilize to help the employees bridge the gap between their present level of performance and their desired level of performance. The challenge for the organisation is to design training options that give employees the information or skills they need and then measure whether those training options were effective in producing desired outcomes.

2.4. Team Building and Performance

It is commonly contended by both business experts and academicians that organizations or firms can improve and recover their performance by using and developing various work teams, the movement toward the superior use of teams initiated in Japanese companies, and it is now extensively known that teamwork is serious about achieving success. Firms reports many descriptions regarding a number of benefits of teams, including bigger participation and involvement, increased consideration to progression enhancements and improved employee satisfaction (Wellins, 1994). Team building has emerged as the most important group phenomenon in organizations that enables managers to harness the energies of all employees to determine their strength and maximize both group and individual productivity. It is natural for the team whenever initiate building itself to seek of maximizing both even by the individual and group productivity. This process has to be in line with the attainment of achieving the organizational objective. It integrates the lower level staff and the top management in organizations in order to work more effectively so that they can achieve high performance and produce more profit. This inspiration is about boosting the productivity of employees, where involves several steps of actions to create cohesion and a sense of social support (Adiar 1986). Team building is about bringing together employees voluntarily in order to find a solution to any problems which encountered in their daily working basis.
The number of the team is depending on the tasks assigned to them. Their important initial agenda is to think of how to implement the suggested solutions in suitable areas, therefore, cooperation not confrontation. furthermore, the main objective of the team building not only to helping the organization to improve productivity or organization performance, also they have to bring about harmonious relations amongst employees together with bringing out the creative talents of its members. Examples of firms that are following this team based organizational culture are Philips and Cadburys. Dwivedi (2006), stated that, there are an international firms which have created new influences by empowering and supporting team building. Specifically, these firms are sensitive to technological changes; they aim at the global market and industrial development. The above discussion implies that team building is an important component in the performance of employees in organizations.
Contrary, Eduardo Salas, et al., (1999) reported an insignificant effect of team building on performance. However, the effects of team building varied as a function of the type of operationalization of performance. On objective measures of performance, it is reported that insignificant tendency for team building to decrease performance, whereas, on subjective measures of performance, a significant found to occurred, albeit small, a tendency for team building to increase performance. Examination of the specific components of team building revealed that interventions emphasizing role clarification were more likely to increase performance, whereas interventions that emphasized goal setting, problem-solving, or interpersonal relations were no more likely to render an increase or decrease in performance. Finally, the effects of team building decreased as a function of the size of the team.

2.5. Teamwork and Performance

Employee’s team or group is a collection of persons or individuals who are interdependent in the duties and tasks and who share responsibilities and accountabilities for the outcomes (Cohen and Bailey, 1999). Team’s empowers and letting people to cooperate, enhance and helps to improve individual skills, knowledge and abilities to provide constructive feedback without any conflict between individuals (Jones et al., 2007). Teamwork is an important factor for smoothly functioning of an organization. Most of the organizational activities become complex due to advancement and much innovations in recent years in technology therefore teamwork is a major focus of many organizations. One research study concluded that teamwork is necessary for all types of organization including non-profit organization (Pfaff and Huddleston, 2003). The esprit De corps is the feeling, sense or viewpoint that employee holds about the group. Esprit de corps is also known as team spirit in which employee shares their problem with each other with the organization (Jaworski and Kohli, 1993).
2.5.1. Team Trust
Trust amongst team members originates when each members or individuals of the teams develop the confidence in each other’s competences. One research study concluded that trust among the team members develop unique skills and coordination of individuals (Erdem, Ferda, Ozen & Janset, 2003).
2.5.2. Recognition and Rewards
Recognition and rewards are the major concentration of the individuals who are working and performing in team (Rabey, 2003). Sensitive managers know and continuously capture the benefits of the team. Teams show collective strength of the individuals and boost the motivation and morale of individuals as well. Managers critically observe the team members hidden working potential otherwise managers may lose them.

3. Research Questions

1. To what extent does a monetary reward affect the performance of Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority employees?
2. To what extent does training affect the performance of Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority employees?
3. To what extent does team building affect the performance of Bahraini Market Regulatory Authority employees?

4. Research Framework

Based on the reviewed related motivation literature, the below conceptual framework introduced, figure 3 illustrates the research framework as it shows below:
Figure 3. The Conceptual Framework
Based on the reviewing of the related studies and theories, the study hypotheses were formulated as below:
Hypothesis 1: Monetary rewards will have a direct positive effect on employees’ performance in the LMRA in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Hypothesis 2: Training rewards will have a direct positive effect on employees’ performance in the LMRA in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Hypothesis 3: Team building will have a direct positive effect on employees’ performance in the LMRA in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

5. Research Design

The study employed the descriptive survey design, information on the influence of motivation on performance was presented as received from the respondent. However, questionnaires were the main tool in this study, it carries out as a process of collecting data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject in the study (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). The rationale behind the selection of the design was that it helped the researcher to explore the existing status of motivation in Labor Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA) and establish the effective management of motivational systems in the LMRA in Kingdom of Bahrain.

6. Target Population

A population refers to the aggregate of all cases that conform to some designated set of specifications it is the entire set of relevant units of analysis or data (Kothari, 2008). There is a total of 384 employees working in the LMRA in the Kingdom of Bahrain. This number, however, considers for the purpose of this paper as the target population, where, in the sample provided correspondence, namely: Department Managers, Assistant Manager, Graduate Clerks, employees. These individuals provided information by filling in the questionnaires on the status of motivation in their department.

7. Sampling and Distribution

The random sampling technique was applied since no complexities were involved. All that will be needed is a relatively small, clearly defined population (Orodho & Okombo, 2002). In this study, out of (384), (196) questionnaires were distributed, the total return and valid questionnaires were (103) representing (52.6%) of the response rate of the study sample size.

8. Data analysis and Results

The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social SOFTWARE (SPSS) version 22, was used in order to analyze the obtained data. The reliability Statistics (internal consistency reliability or the Cronbach‘s alpha reliability coefficients) of the study variables were achieved. All of them were found to be above 0.80. The result obtained from the Cronbach‘s alpha test for the study variables is shown in the table (1).
Table 1. Reliability test
The result indicates that the Cronbach‘s alpha for all variables were ranged between seven to ten items scored (0.89) and (0.967). In general, reliabilities less than 0.60 are considered to be poor, those in the 0.70 range, acceptable, and those over 0.80 good (Nunnally, Jum C.; Bernstein, 1967). Cronbach‘s alpha for the other four independent variables ranged from 0.81 to 0.85. Thus, the internal consistency reliability of the measures used in this study would be considered to be good (Joseph F. Hair Jr, 2010, p. 125). The satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha coefficient in this study was achieved, hence the analysis moves on to the next stage of instrument development. The study instrument were developed based on reviewing of several study. The research questionnaire were adopted upon reviewing some related studies.

9. Hypotheses Testing and Result

The simple linear regression was employed in order to test the study Hypotheses, the result of this analysis indicted that all the Hypotheses accepted as shown in table (2).
Table 2. Summary of the hypotheses result

10. Future Study

Firstly, the performance of the employees is positively influenced by the overall self-efficacy. It is also proved that the organizational behaviour of the sceptical practicing professionals is usually influenced a significant amount of confidence. Secondly, the complexity of the tasks as well as performance locus is found to moderate the link between self-efficacy and performance at the workplace. These two factors play an important role in organizational settings as they have a tendency to deteriorate the link between self-efficacy and performance. With the increase in the complexity of the task, this link has been proved to be weaker. However, the organizations can improve the performance of the employees with the help of the following suggestions:
Firstly, the employees should be provided with relevant details of the tasks assigned to them. The exact definitions and explanations of the tasks and context of tasks would help them to deal with the complex tasks. Secondly, the managers should explain them about the technical skills required for successful performance. They should also instruct the employees how to select a proper method among the available methods while solving a complex task. Thirdly, the managers should keep the work environment away from physical distractions. These physical distractions are found to induce negative thoughts, psychological stress and reduce team spirit among the employees. In addition to that, the managers should improve the self-efficacy of the employees through effective training initiatives and make them successfully perform the complex tasks. The managers should also improve the cognitive skills and support them in taking up challenging tasks through training.
Researchers have discussed more the concept of self-efficacy. However, there is no adequate review on the link between self-efficacy and performance at the workplace. In order to fill this gap, the researcher has reviewed and analyzed the outcomes of the related literature. These outcomes were found to be related to work-related performance. As a result, we should not expect them to reflect the overall of the influence of self-efficacy perceptions on other activities. However, the influence of self-efficacy on occupational choice and job searching, health conscious as well as proper physical functioning in sports psychology and medicine, academic performance of the individuals, and flexibility are some aspects which have not been discussed in this study. In this study, the researcher has attempted to assess the influence of self-efficacy on the performance of individuals at the workplace and the mechanism by which self-efficacy of an individual determines his/her work-related performance and motivation.

11. Conclusions

The study has addressed the employee’s performance in the LMB. However, the study concluded that motivation elements which presented in this study (training, monetary rewards and team building) which have already applied for work-related performance, resulted to that most of the management scholars and experts are interested in this theory. This is found to be related to views in literature. A lot of studies have concentrated on the student’s learning efficacy with minimal focus on employees (Gist & Mitchell, 1992; Johnson, 2005; Joo et al., 2000; Stumpf et al., 1987; Zimmerman et al., 1992; Zhao & Seibert, 2005). In addition to these individuals who have a high self-efficacy are more likely to set themselves challenging goals which are most often achieved (Bandura & Locke, 2003; Stajkovic, 2006).
Thus, it becomes necessary to identify the practical implications of the outcomes related to improving employee self-efficacy in order to motivate them and improve their performance. The following implications are made by the author.

12. Recommendations

Following the study findings, it is clear that the team approach is the best system to adopt in order to enhance individual/employees’ performance in organizations. To achieve maximum benefits from teams, the following recommendations are advanced. There should be a clear budget for team building activities and team coordinators should be involved in budgetary allocations. All employees should belong to a team and trained to ensure they understand and concur on the benefits of team building.
Coordination of team building activities should be assigned to any team member every time a new activity is to be started. Choice of coordinator should be based on the complexity of the activity and ability, skills and experience of team members but all members must have a chance to “lead”. Team members are individuals with different emotional needs, this must be known and individual differences understood so as to create teams that are able to utilize them as strengths and not weaknesses. Individual development plan should be incorporated in team management to motivate staff. Communications among teams need to be improved to ensure all members have sufficient information to base their decisions and further, Staff should be involved in making decisions on matters affecting their work operations. Teams should be motivated by rewards once a team has accomplished strategic milestones. These can be either monetary or non-monetary, i.e. ‘well done’,’ Thank you for your hard work’ these can have a tremendous effect.
Finally, team building activities should be designed, planned, executed and monitored so as to create synergy, increase skills and knowledge, create organizational flexibility, provide member’s satisfaction and allow members freedom to participate in decision making and implanting changes.


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