Human Resource Management Research

p-ISSN: 2169-9607    e-ISSN: 2169-9666

2017;  7(1): 33-37



Safety at Workplace Enhance Productivity

Selvarajah Krishnan1, Sheikh Muhamad Hizam2, Adam Khuzaini Mohd Saffian2, Nur Azzey Shazwani Baharun2, Nadia Azman2

1International University of Malaya-Wales, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Business School, University Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence to: Selvarajah Krishnan, International University of Malaya-Wales, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).


Human behaviour is such an important ingredient in improving workplace safety and managing loss control exposures. These will leads to the effective outcomes in the area of workplace safety. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between human behaviour and safety at workplace that impact the operation processes in the organization. Found that awareness of the workplace safety and the technology supporting become significant developmental growth. Furthermore, quantitative research found that strong principles of human behaviour will lead effective workplace and improve productivity which benefit the organisation in the future.

Keywords: Productivity, Attitude and manners, Workplace safety

Cite this paper: Selvarajah Krishnan, Sheikh Muhamad Hizam, Adam Khuzaini Mohd Saffian, Nur Azzey Shazwani Baharun, Nadia Azman, Safety at Workplace Enhance Productivity, Human Resource Management Research, Vol. 7 No. 1, 2017, pp. 33-37. doi: 10.5923/j.hrmr.20170701.04.

1. Introduction

This study has been conducted to identify the relationship between human behaviour and the safety at workplace in the case of workers, moreover, the researcher already described the 3 main factor of human behaviour that been focused on, that are workers awareness and productivity, workers attitude and manner and workplace culture and safety. Meaning that, the researcher wants to seek for answer either those 3 factors has strong relationship towards the safety at workplace. Thus, the data has been collected through different methods which are by using questionnaire, and then, all those data will gathered together and then analysed, after that, the data will be come out to be as findings. Safety is key factor in ensuring that everyone is bound to the policy and procedures so that they are in the best condition. Safety is the most important aspect that should be concern due to its difficulties and complex phenomenon, and the company of safety performance across the industries is hard and demanding to achieve. Some sort of awareness and training must be given in order to optimize the risk of accident. As in many companies, the error in operation frequently happens due to unconcern attitudes on safety and it leads to inefficient and ineffective process. Workers as an asset of the company often exposed to unsafe condition and accident, with this, it will lead to injuries and illness to workers. Safety in the workplace has received an increasing amount of attention for over years. Approaches to improving safety have focused primarily on safer work environments, training, and policies. These efforts if being implemented can reduce injuries and reportable incidents. However, not all workers realize on the important of safety, it might due to lack of knowledge, awareness. While behavioural safety shares a concern with human behaviour and safe performance in the workplace with other approaches, it is more than that. Behavioural safety is the application of behavioural research on human performance to the problems of safety in the workplace.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Productivity

The definition of workplace productivity as stated by the Department of Labour is "Productive workplaces are built on teamwork and a shared vision of where a business is heading. There's a willingness at all levels to keep learning and investing in skills. In a productive workplace everyone's role is valued and all staff are encouraged to contribute ideas”. Workplace productivity is essential to the employees, employers, organisation and economy who will all benefit from this. As the more the economy grows the more unemployment will decrease, raising the standard of living for everyone. Therefore, workplace productivity is important to everyone to ensure New Zealand has social and economic growth.

2.2. Attitude and Manners

The maturity of attitude in human being is likely different with another, other past research shows that the age factor of human’s maturity is not exactly same, meaning that, if 2 person with same-aged but differ in knowledge and experience being compared, then there are totally different in results. This theory discussed about the training and knowledge level was important to describe between to different person. It has been shown that training increasing moral maturity has positive effects on the behaviour of people in business (Francis L. Jeffries). However, the case of accidental at workplace is increased from day to day, due to lack of intention and concern given to safety performance, safety procedures and improvement of methods to prevent accidents and injuries. Other than that, researcher believe that supervision to the workers is at optimum, but unfortunately, the workers itself tend to not follow the regulation and procedure, as stated by Wameedh A. Khdair, (2011), leads to negligence, carelessness of workers, recklessness of workers and lack of monitoring and controlling. All these factors have influence on safety performance or lead to the weakening safety performance and the high rate of accidents, later convinced by H Sanaei Nasabet al, which mentioned that human aspects is likely contribute to safety failure at workplace due to their unsafe behaviour, negative attitude and incompetence.

2.3. Workplace Safety

Health and Safety Executive, (2004) discussed that accidents can occur through people’s involvement with their work. As technical systems have become more reliable, the focus has turned to human causes of accidents. It is estimated that up to 80% of accidents may be attributed, at least in part, to the actions or omissions of people. Work has an impact on people’s health as well as on their safety. A job satisfaction can be done if the people are having positive work experience and can contribute to physical and mental well-being. At workplaces, the problematic behavior, unsafe act, could be reduced if the company has exposure and effective solution towards minimizing costs significantly and improve the safety as a main focus of the company. Training plays most contributing role in explaining management practices to improve safety performance.
In order to improve the quality of safety and health for all employees, organizations should implement a systematic, comprehensive safety program and health training program for new employees. To improve the awareness to these hazards and it will help provide orientation to new employees in safety and health quality systems (Wameedh A. Khdair, 2011) The theory also was supported by H Sanaei Nasab et al. (2009) which is stated that that the causing agent of 90% of workplace accidents is human error and only 10% of those belong to unsuitable workplace and equipment. Human factor includes lack of knowledge, lack of interest, negative attitude, unsafe behavior and incompetence. Lack of interest is among the most important factors that fail health promotion plans at workplace. University Technology Sydney in its book titled the “Human Resources: Principles and Procedures mentioned that controlled behavior within the workplace can contribute positively to creating a productive and harmonious environment in which staff can be inspired and achieve their full potential. However, when behavior is inappropriate or dysfunctional, it can have serious consequences on productivity, job satisfaction and on the physical and psychological well-being of staff. The term fatal injuries mean deaths, which is resulted from the traumatic injury or other external causes that occurred on the workplace. While non-fatal injuries refer to those injuries which lead to physical or emotional damages. These injuries can be controlled by medical aid within a certain time period and these injuries do not lead to death, (Wameedh A. Khdair, 2011).

3. Methodology

3.1. Sampling Design

In this chapter, the researcher will discuss about the data that collected during the distribution of questionnaire to the workers and the total of sample taken from the workers were 50 overall. The question designed is based on the 3 independent variables that interconnected with the objectives, which are Worker’s Level of awareness and productivity, Worker’s attitude and manners and Workplace culture and safety. The approach used in this study is crucial to determine the possible outcomes thus answering the question based on the objective. The methods that used which is by collecting the data through:
This design makes us able to determine the amount and the numbers of data gathered from this research. This research technique in which a sample is interviewed in some form or the behaviour of respondents is observed and describe in some ways or tools such as questionnaires.
Secondary Data
Secondary Data is where the information is collect from other medium such as Internet and newspapers. This will help us to get additional information in order to do our research. This will make our research become easier and take a short time period to done it.
Workers will answer several questions based on their perspective that related on human behavior and the safety at the workplace, thus the questionnaire then divided into 4 categories which is Section A: Demographic details, Section B: Worker’s attitude and manner perspective, Section C: Level of worker’s awareness and productivity and Section D: Workplace safety. When conducting the Data Collection and Analysis, the data is obtained from the questionnaire from the workers, and it will be analysed accordingly. For this study, the data for the workers and top management perspectives is collected from the company, either during the office hour or appointment-scheduled, then that particular data will be designed into graphs, pie-charts, tables and figures. The questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents at several areas such as the office/warehouse/ maintenance yard or other suitable place.

4. Finding

From the questionnaire, we will discuss about the data that collected during the distribution of questionnaire to the workers, the total of sample taken from the workers were to 30 overall. Section A: Demographic. In demographic question, there are consists of respondent details and identity which includes gender, race, religion, position of work, and working experience. Section B: Attitudes and Manner of worker. In section B, the questions are based on the respondent’s personality, attitudes and manner concern, also their safety practices in workplace. Section C: Worker’s Awareness and Productivity. In section C, the questions are based on the respondent’s awareness on the safety practices in workplace, and the importance of safety practices and Section D: Workplace Culture and Safety. In Section D, the questions are based on the present culture that applied in their workplace, and either the culture in derive to positive or negative result to the workplace safety.
The figure shows that the questionnaire that been distributed to the respondent is totally answered by male respondent, due to the male workers who was appointed to work with the machinery, transportation, logistic in the company. From the chart above, we can see that there are much different in working experience for all workers. From the first data, it shows that workers with 5 years and above in working experience are 10, besides that, there are also10 workers who had 3-5 years of experience and the majority among the workers had 1-3 years of working experience in the company.
Workers Attitude and Manners
The pie-chart above shows the number of workers that had been injured during their working, which is half of respondent who answered our questionnaire, stated that they had been experiencing injuries during working hour such accident during driving the transport. From the data above, 55 workers are strongly agree in making a report about any workplace injuries to their supervisor if there is incident happen during the working hour, 6 workers were agree to make a report to the supervisor if there are any workplace injuries, 3 workers left both disagree and strongly disagree in way to make a workplace injuries report to their supervisor.
Workers Awareness and Productivity
As we can see, the chart above shows the number of data that collected about the explanation on the safety rules/procedure from organization to the workers. Half of the workers were strongly agree and very clear on the explanation about the safety rules/procedure that provided by the company. 10 workers then were agreed and clear on the explanation. Other than that, another 5 was disagree on the explanation and not clear about it.
The chart above shown about the safety gear or protective tools and equipment that must be wore during working. Form the chart above, it shows 52 workers were strongly agree on wearing the protective equipment during working, 10 workers were agree, another 4 workers were vote for disagree and the rest of 4 was strongly disagree on equipping during work.
Workplace culture and safety
From the chart above, the workers were asked about their manager/supervisor, either they makes sure the workers do the work in safely manner. From that data, 55 workers were strongly agree about their manager always makes sure they do the work in safely manner, then, 10 workers were agree about their manager/supervisor concerned, besides, only 5 workers were tend to disagree about their manager/ supervisor concern on their safely manner on work. Lastly 0 person vote on strongly disagree. The chart above shows the data on the workers initiative to make a report on any incident occur and the response of the management to that report. From the above data, most of the workers were strongly agree to make a report and the management were make a quick response to the incident happen, besides, 10 workers were agree on this, another 5 workers choose to disagree on the questionnaire and 5 workers left was strongly disagree.

5. Conclusions

In this chapter, the researcher will determine the strength of relationship between Independent Variable (Productivity, Attitudes and Manners and Workplace Culture and Safety) with the Value of Percentage and the Strength of Relationship. The relationship between Independent Variable and Dependent Variable will determine the percentage of strength for each IV to be related with DV, thus, the researcher will able to see which of the IV that has the most contribution to the DV. Based on the objectives, the researcher will determine on which IV that have the highest relationship strength towards the DV and lastly, the researcher will discuss and analyse data collected to support the objectives stated. Accidents can occur through people’s involvement with their work. As technical systems have become more reliable, the focus has turned to human causes of accidents. It is estimated that up to 80% of accidents may be attributed, at least in part, to the actions or omissions of people. This is not surprising since people are involved throughout the life cycle of an organization, from design through to operation, maintenance, management and demolition. Many accidents are blamed on the actions or omissions of an individual who was directly involved in operational or maintenance work. This typical but short-sighted response ignores the fundamental failures which led to the accident. These are usually rooted deeper in the organization’s design, management and decision-making functions. Work has an impact on people’s health as well as on their safety. A positive work experience leads to job satisfaction and contributes to physical and mental well-being. Well-designed tasks and working environments that suit people’s individual skills and capabilities can help here. Physical health problems can result from lost-time injuries such as slips and falls, and from manual handling problems. Mental well-being can be affected if someone witnesses a traumatic event, suffers bullying or violence at work, or experiences stress at work.


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