Education

p-ISSN: 2162-9463    e-ISSN: 2162-8467

2020;  10(2): 41-47

doi:10.5923/j.edu.20201002.03

Received: June 23, 2020; Accepted: July 20, 2020; Published: August 15, 2020

 

Effects of Sports Participation on the Academic Performance of Grade 12 Students after the K-12 Implementation

Joswa Billonid , Ma. Teresa Cabailo , Winde Rose Mie Dagle , Donna May Godilano , Kyle Robert Kibanoff , Lenny Rose Tasic

Department of Senior High School, Western Institute of Technology, Philippines

Correspondence to: Joswa Billonid , Department of Senior High School, Western Institute of Technology, Philippines.

Email:

Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Abstract

Education stakeholders are trying to adapt to the implementation of K-12 to address the deficiency of the Philippine education system. Adapting to the new education system and having extracurricular activities like sports is challenging for the students. This study compared the academic performance of athletes and non-athletes in Grade 12 Senior High School students (N=60) using their midterm scores and a self-report survey questionnaire after the K-12 implementation. The results showed no significant difference in the midterm scores between non-athlete (78.13 ± 13.71) and athletes (73.7 ± 9.13) with a p-value of 0.146. The results of the survey questionnaire showed that only two (2) questions out of fifteen (15) (Do you skip classes? and Do you have enough allowance?) had a significant difference (p>0.05). The present investigation showed that student-athletes have the same academic activities and performance as non-athletes.

Keywords: Student-athlete, Extracurricular activities, Academic performance, K-12

Cite this paper: Joswa Billonid , Ma. Teresa Cabailo , Winde Rose Mie Dagle , Donna May Godilano , Kyle Robert Kibanoff , Lenny Rose Tasic , Effects of Sports Participation on the Academic Performance of Grade 12 Students after the K-12 Implementation, Education, Vol. 10 No. 2, 2020, pp. 41-47. doi: 10.5923/j.edu.20201002.03.

1. Introduction

Following popular stereotypes, some believe one can be academically or athletically inclined, but rarely both [1]. But for athletes, they must perform well academically or athletically. Despite being an athlete and spending more time training, student-athletes must enter classes and acquire passing grades. The researchers found four areas that student-athletes must commit to and focus on daily: academics, sports, personal development, and career development [6]. Sedlacek and Adams-Gaston [25] classify student-athletes as “nontraditional” due to their sports experience, obligations, and roles on campus.
Academics are the primary focus of the school environment, and extracurricular activities play a role in molding a well-rounded individual [23]. Being a student-athlete is not easy because they spend most of the time on sports training instead of studying, which may affect their academic performance in the long run. However, sports enthusiasts claim that sports participation motivates student-athletes. Sports can also help a student to become physically fit and obtain the spirit of teamwork and sportsmanship [20]. Interestingly, there is limited information in the literature about the effects of sports participation on the academic performance of senior high school students after the implementation of the K-12 curriculum in the Philippines education system. Thus, this study compared the academic performance of student-athletes and non-athletes in Grade 12 Senior High School students using their midterm scores and a self-report survey questionnaire after the K-12 implementation.

2. Materials and Methods

A total of 60 students were the participants of this study and selected using convenience sampling. These 60 students were purposively selected and categorized by researchers to have 30 student-athletes and 30 non-athletes. Student-athletes in this study are students who participated in sports competitions before the midterm examination. On the other hand, non-athletes refer to students that did not participate in any sports competition before the midterm examination. The following researcher-made criteria are utilized for the selection of respondents: (1) Enrolled as Grade 12 Senior High School students; (2) Taking Media and Information Literacy under the same subject teacher at the time of this study; and (3) Involved in sports competition before the midterm examination (for the athlete). The selected criteria were formulated to avoid the teacher and subject bias factors and control the other factors that were not covered in this study but could affect the respondents' academic performance. The study used a validated survey questionnaire and midterm score to measure the participants’ academic performance. The survey part of this study was limited to a self-report context only. The survey questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and scored using 4-point Likert-type scales: (1) Never, (2) Sometimes, (3) Often, and (5) Always. The questionnaires were validated according to content, construct, and face by researchers and colleagues that experts in developing questionnaires in the Department of Senior High School.
The midterm scores of students are used to measure their academic performance. The rationale for using midterm scores is because the midterm examination is conducted after sports season. For this reason, the researcher believes that the midterm scores would accurately measure the athletes' academic performance without the biases of the teacher factor. The teacher factor is based on the statement of Bonura [5] that many students and professors believe that student-athletes receive discriminatory treatment on campus academically, like having good grades without earning them. The consolidated results are presented in the bar using Microsoft Excell 2010. A stacked bar is used to show the individual responses of respondents in percentage. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v20 was used as a statistical tool to analyze the data using a t-test. The alpha value of 0.05 was used as the cutoff for significance.

3. Results

3.1. Midterm Scores

The midterm scores showed that the non-athletes generated the highest mean with a value of 78.13 ± 13.71, compared to student-athletes with a value of 73.7 ± 9.13 (Table 1). Although non-athletes had higher midterm scores than student-athletes, based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the midterm score of students. Both student-athletes and non-athletes (p=0.146) performed similarly to each other in terms of midterm examination.
Table 1. Midterm scores of respondents
     

3.2. Survey Questionnaire

The validated survey questionnaire explored the different activities that could affect the student’s academic performance during the midterm examination. The results showed that in question number one (Do you attend classes regularly?), the highest percentage generated in student-athletes was 73.33% that answered they always attend classes regularly, 23.33% responded often, and 3.33% responded sometimes. The same trend was observed for the non-athletes, in which 90% responded they always attend classes regularly, 3.33%, and 6.67% sometimes. No one, both athletes and non-athletes, responded never. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in respondents’ responses in both athletes and non-athletes (p>0.05). In question number two (Do you go to school on time?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 50% that responded they often go to school on time, followed by 20% that responded they always go to school on time, 3% responded sometimes, and no one answered never. Different trends were found for the non-athletes wherein 46.67% responded they always go to school on time, followed by 30% that responded often, 13.33% responded sometimes, and the lowest percentage was 10% that responded never. Although there were variations in the responses of student-athletes and non-athletes, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in their responses (p>0.05) (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Results of the survey questionnaire. (a) Athlete; and (b) Non-athlete. (Q1) Do you attend classes regularly; (Q2) Do you go to school on time; (Q3) Do you skip classes; (Q4) Do you participate in class discussions; (Q5) Do you spend time studying for every examination; (Q6) Do you attend tutorial classes; (Q7) Do you borrow notes from your classmates when missed a lesson; (Q8) Do you cheat during the major exam; (Q9) Do you understand the lesson very well; (Q10) Do you use a cellphone or other gadgets during the class discussion; (Q11) Do you spend more time with your boyfriend/girlfriend rather than studying; (Q12) Does your family pressure you to excel in class; (Q13) Do your peers a bad influence in your studies; (Q14) Do you have enough allowance; (Q15)Do you watch YouTube tutorials related to your subject
In question number three (Do you skip classes?) (For athletes: training or game and for non-athletes: another reason), the highest percentage generated in athletes were those who answered they sometimes skip classes, followed by never, often, and always (43.33%, 30%, 20%, and 6.67%, respectively). A different trend was found for the non-athletes wherein those who answered never generated the highest percentage, followed by sometimes, and both always and often generated the lowest percentage (73.33%, 13.33%, 6.67%, and 6.67%, respectively). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the response of athletes compared to non-athletes. In question number four (4) (Do you participate in class discussion?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 46.67% who answered they always participated in-class discussion, 40% that often answered, 3.33% answered, and no one answered never. The same trend was found for the non-athletes, in which 63.33% answered they always participate in class discussion, 23.33% responded often, 10% answered sometimes, and 3.33% answered never. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the response of respondents. In question number five (Do you spend time to study for every examination?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 43.33% that answered they often spend time to study for every examination, followed by 33.33% that answered both always and never, and 20% answered sometimes spending time to study for every examination. Different trends were found for the non-athletes wherein 46.67% answered they always spend time studying for every examination, 23.33% responded often, 20% answered sometimes, and 10% answered never. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the response of respondents (p>0.05) (Figure 1).
In question number six (6) (Do you attend tutorial classes ?) the highest percentage generated were athletes who responded they sometimes attend tutorial classes, followed by never, often, and always (43.33%, 40%, 10%, and 6.67%, respectively). The same trend was found for the non-athletes, wherein 63.33% answered they never attended tutorial classes, followed by 26.67% who answered sometimes, 6.67% answered often, and the lowest percentage was 3.33% responded always. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the response of respondents. In question number seven (7) (Do you borrow notes from your classmates when missed a lesson?), the highest percentage generated were athletes who responded they always borrow notes from their classmates when they missed a class, followed by sometimes, often, and never (36.67, 33.33%, 26.67%, and 3.33%, respectively). The same trend was found for the non-athletes, wherein 30% responded they always borrow notes from their classmates when they missed a lesson, 33.33% responded often, 23.33 responded sometimes, and 13.33% responded never. In question number eight (Do you cheat during a major exam?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 50% that responded they sometimes cheat during a significant exam, 33.33% responded they never cheat during a significant exam, 13.3 responded often, and the lowest percentage was 3.33% responded always. Different trends were found for the non-athletes, in which 46.67% responded they never cheat during a significant examination, followed by 40% responded sometimes, and the lowest percentage found was 6.67% answered both always and often. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the response of respondents (p>0.05) (Figure 1).
In question number nine (9) (Do you understand the lesson very well?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 73.33% that responded they often understand the lesson very well, followed by 16.67% who responded sometimes and always. No one of the participants responded never. The same trend was found for the non-athletes, wherein 46.67% responded that they often understand the lesson very well, followed by 26.67% who answered both always and sometimes, and none of the non-athlete participants answered never. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in respondents’ responses (p>0.05). In question number ten (10) (Do you use a cell phone or other gadgets during a class discussion?), the highest percentage generated were athletes who answered they sometimes use a cell phone or other devices during a class discussion, followed by never, often, and always which calculated as 50%, 23.33%, 20%, and 6.67%, respectively. A different trend was found for the non-athletes wherein those who answered sometimes generated the highest percentage, followed by never, often, and always which were calculated as 43.33%, 26.67%, 16.67%, and 13.33%, respectively. In question number eleven (11) (Do you spend more time with your boyfriend/girlfriend rather than studying?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 80% that responded they never spend more time with their boyfriend / girlfriend rather than studying, 16.67% responded sometimes, and 3.33% responded often spending time with boyfriend / girlfriend rather than learning. The same trend was observed for the non-athletes, in which 86.67% answered they never spend more time with their boyfriend/girlfriend rather than studying, no one responded often, 10% answered sometimes, and 3.33% answered always. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in respondents’ responses (p>0.05). In question number twelve (12) (Does your family pressure you to excel in class?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 46.67% answered that never their family pressures them to excel in class, 10% responded, and 40% responded sometimes. The same trend was found for the non-athletes, in which 6.67% answered that their family constantly pressures them to excel in class, 10% responded often, 30% answered sometimes, and 53.33% answered never. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in respondents' responses (p>0.05). In question number thirteen (13) (Do your peers a bad influence in your studies?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 50% who responded that never their peers a bad influence in their studies, 10% responded 67% responded sometimes, and 3.33% responded always. The same trend was found for the non-athletes, wherein 13.33% responded that their peers were always a bad influence in their studies, no one answered often, 26.67% responded sometimes, and 60% answered never. There was no significant difference in the responses of respondents. In question number fourteen (14) (Do you have enough allowance?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 53.33% who responded they often have enough allowance, followed by 26.67% who responded they always have enough allowance, 20% responded sometimes, and 0% answered never. Different trends were found for the non-athletes wherein 20% responded always have enough allowance, 33.33% responded often, 30% responded sometimes, and 16.67% answered never. Based on statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the response of athletes compared to non-athlete. In the last question (Do you watch YouTube tutorials related to your subject?), the highest percentage generated in athletes was 50% that respond they sometimes watch YouTube tutorials related to the subject, both always and often generated the same percentage (6.67%), and 36.67% answered never. Different trends were found for the non-athletes, in which 40% answered sometimes, 26.67% responded often, 33.33% answered never, and 0% answered always. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the responses of respondents (p<0.05) (Figure 1).

4. Discussion

Research shows that participation in sports has excellent cognitive and physical benefits [3]. Physically, exercise promotes heart health, good weight management, healthy blood pressure, and mental sharpness [14]. In the present study, though the midterm scores of non-athletes were higher than the student-athlete, the statistical results showed no significant difference in the midterm scores (Table 1). This result supports the claims that participating in sports had no negative impact on the academic performance of athletes (midterm scores in the case of this study) despite the implementation of K-12 in the Philippine education system. This result is consistent with the study of Yarkwah and Agyei [29] that participation in sports had no adverse effects on the academic performance of student-athletes. Sports participation developed and enhanced the academic of student-athletes in terms of academic excellence, self-discipline, cognitive skills, and class participation. This result agreed with other studies that believe athletic activities do not just enhance your skills, stamina, and endurance but also help promote cognitive function [3].
The question that needs to be answered is how come that student-athlete performed academically the same as the non-athlete? This question was answered in the survey questionnaire, which explores their daily activities inside and outside the school to determine the coping strategies of student-athletes and compare them to the non-athletes. ETC [10] stated that learning is being wasted when a student is late or absent. In the present study, both student-athletes and non-athletes considered regular class attendance as significant, wherein “always” rated the highest percentage compared to their other answers (Figure 1). Attendance and punctuality are essential factors in ensuring students have an equal opportunity in the curriculum. Moreover, for student-athletes to participate in sports activities, students must be present in classes [19]. Some students who are late to attend the class are signs of disobedience. However, students attempt to explain excuses that prevent them from attending the class [4]. Out of many excuses, students should come on time for class. Interestingly, the present study results are away from expectations there was no significant difference in punctuality during class attendance between the student-athletes and non-athletes. This result means that student-athletes did not use sports activities as an excuse for punctuality and avoided being undisciplined and unfair to other class members. The results of the present investigation are consistent with the study of Grimit [17], that student-athletes were motivated to attend classes. ETC [10] reported that the attendance and punctuality policy clearly states that “regular and punctual attendance is paramount in ensuring that all students have full access to the curriculum. Valuable learning is lost when students are absent or late”. Commonly, students encounter a problem with motivation to attend classes [8] and observed in the present study that some students who were not athletes were also skipping classes. However, this was also observable in student-athlete, wherein the highest percentage was found in those who answered they “sometimes skip classes for training,” which was expected and understandable. This result supported their midterm scores; though the result was insignificant, the trend showed that athletes had lower midterm scores than non-athletes. However, the student-athletes could compensate for this when they were inside the classroom by contributing in class. This observation supported the present results that both student-athletes and non-athletes were active in class discussions. The percentage of those who answered “always” dominated compared to the other answers in both student-athletes and non-athletes (Figure 1). This result agrees with the study of Grace et al. [15] that athletes give their best efforts to participate in-class activities and discussions. Most students gain more knowledge and enjoy themselves inside the class if they actively contribute to class [28]. Some students are experiencing difficulty in class, not because of a lack of ability but because they lack good study skills, such as reading textbooks and notes for the exam [18]. Studying before the exam to improve memory is significant to exam scores. Moreover, this study showed no significant difference in the study habit between non-athletes and student-athletes before the examination (Table 2). This result inferred that student-athletes tend to do the same activities academically compared to non-athletes. Yilmaz et al. [30] concluded a significant relationship between study habits and athletes’ academic performance.
Table 2. Summary of p- values in all questions
     
Another option to cope with the class activities was attending class tutorials. In this study, student-athletes and non-athletes who do not attend tutorial classes dominated the survey. However, some of them do. This result can be an important matter that the school needs to work out, especially for the student-athletes, like it can be mandatory for them to attend tutorial classes. Students attend tutorial classes for different reasons, to fulfill their parents’ expectations, pass a university entrance examination, excel in class, get high grades, etc. [7]. As student-athlete, they tend to spend more time in training than studying, which leads to a lot of prejudices and stereotypes. The student-athletes who are more active and committed to sports than academics believe they are not smart [3]. School non-attendance might lead to severe consequences [21]. One of the student-athletes coping strategies is to borrow notes from their classmates, and the results of the present study showed that student-athletes and non-athletes, borrow notes from their classmates when missed a lesson. However, what if student-athletes were not able to cope with their classes? One common problem in school is cheating. According to Graves [16], students who cheat on examinations show dishonesty and be unfair to other students. In the present investigation, the results showed no significant difference in the responses of respondents, student-athletes or non-athletes (Table 2).
Students have their strategies to understand the lesson. Some students analyze the lesson through viewing, listening, and visualizing [11]. In this study, both student-athletes and non-athletes, if not always, respondents understood their lesson very well, and the difference was not significant in both participants (Table 2). This result means that even if student-athletes had extracurricular activities, they could understand the lesson the same as a non-participant in sports.
Students assume the presence of the internet as a great help in their social and educational lives [12]. In the present study, using the internet can be another way to cope with their missed lesson. The use of the internet for educational purposes is increasing, especially for assignments that require the use of the internet [30]. In this study, student-athletes and non-athletes partly use gadgets during class discussions (Figure 1). The same trend was found in the results that both student-athletes and non-athletes had no significant difference in using YouTube for further learning (Table 2). This result is supported in the literature as computer-based instruction improves the ability of students. It also increases the understanding of students through visualization [22].
Hormonal changes affect students when they reach their teenage life [13]. During this stage, students engage in a relationship either seriously or not. This scenario can affect the academic performance of students. The results of the present investigation showed that student-athletes and non-athletes, do not prioritize romantic relationships over their studies.
Sports activities for students with social adjustment issues are important physically, mentally, and socially [24]. The attitude and how the students act in different situations in the school are mainly affected not only by peers but notably by the parents. There is a significant relationship between the parent’s relationship and student academic performance [2]. In the literature, parents rarely support or let their children join a particular sport because not all parents want their children to be athletically inclined. Mostly, they think that being athletically inclined may hinder academic achievements while others require their children to participate in sports for social and cognitive benefits [3]. In this study, both student-athletes and non-athletes were not pressured by their families in their studies (Figure 1).
People need social interactions with their peers or friends. The influence of peers is firm, which makes one follow the others. Moreover, to feel belongingness, they tend to adapt to the influence of their friends [1]. Interestingly, the present study showed no significant difference between the two participants in terms of the influences of their peers (Table 2). In the literature, studies have shown that sports participation is used to help students with social adjustment disorders. Students with adjustment issues who participated in sports programs reported a feeling of belonging and empowerment [24]. Aside from friendships, another factor that can affect the academics of students’ is their financial status. Vhalery et al. [27] stated that allowance is given to students for educational needs to learn how to value money and use it wisely. The present study showed that even though money was needed for the students’ studies, not all of the student-athletes and non-athletes, received enough allowance. However, compared to the non-athletes, student-athletes seemed to have enough allowance.
In summary, although non-athletes had higher midterm scores compared to the athletes, based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the midterm scores of athletes and non-athletes (Table 1). This result explained in the survey questionnaire that out of fifteen questions, only two had a significant difference between respondents' responses (Table 1). Student-athlete significantly skip classes for training compared to the non-athletes that skip classes for other reasons and the student-athlete had enough allowance compared to the non-athlete. Although there were variations in respondents' responses, the statistical results showed that the other thirteen questions had no significant difference between the responses of student-athletes and non-athletes (Table 2).

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

The present investigation showed that student-athletes have the same academic performance as non-athletes, and they were able to perform generally inside and outside the classroom the same as non-participants of sports. Despite having extra time for training and adapting to the implementation of K-12, they could keep up with school activities. In general, this paper showed that athletic participation did not affect the academic performance of Grade 12 Senior High School students after the implementation of K-12. The results of the study are essential for all education stakeholders to promote and support the involvement of students in sports activities.
This study is limited to Grade 12 students and focuses only on one subject matter. Thus, further investigation of the other level is recommended and to cover other subject matter. For the improvement of research, a qualitative method is recommended to achieve corroboration with the indications gained from the survey.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the grade 12 students who participated in the survey and the Department of Senior High School of Western Institute of Technology, Philippines, for facilitating the data collection of the study. No grant or financial support was received during the conduct of this study.

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