R. Thukral
Padé Research Centre, 39 Deanswood Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS17 5JS, England
Correspondence to: R. Thukral, Padé Research Centre, 39 Deanswood Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS17 5JS, England.
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Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Scientific & Academic Publishing.
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Abstract
This paper presents new threepoint Secanttype methods for finding simple root of nonlinear equations. It is proved that the new methods have the convergence order of 1.84 or 1.80 requiring only one function evaluations per full iteration. Some of the threepoint Secanttype iterative methods are shown to have the same order of convergence as the Tiruneh et al. method, the Muller method and the Traub methods. Numerical comparisons are made to demonstrate exceptional convergence speed of the proposed methods. It is observed that the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods are very competitive with the similar robust methods.
Keywords:
Secanttype methods, Simple root, Nonlinear equations, Rootfinding, Order of convergence
Cite this paper: R. Thukral, New ThreePoint SecantType Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations, American Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics , Vol. 10 No. 1, 2020, pp. 1520. doi: 10.5923/j.ajcam.20201001.03.
1. Introduction
The rootfinding problem arises in a wide variety of practical applications in physics and engineering [2,3,8]. In this paper, we present new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods to find a simple root of the nonlinear equation. It is well established that the multipoint rootsolvers is of great practical importance since it overcomes theoretical limits of onepoint methods concerning the convergence order and computational efficiency. Recently, some modifications of the Secanttype methods for simple root have been proposed and analysed [47]. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to show further development of the secanttype methods. The threepoint Secanttype iterative methods are shown to have the same order of convergence as the Tiruneh et al. method [7], the Muller method [1] and the Traub methods [8]. In view of this fact, the proposed methods are significantly better when compared with the established methods. We have found that the efficiency index of new iterative methods has a better efficiency index than the classical Secant method.We consider two wellknown iterative methods for finding simple root of nonlinear equations are namely, the classical secant method  (1) 
and the Tiruneh et al method, given by  (2) 
and their order of convergence is 1.62 and 1.84 respectively. However, for the purpose of this paper, we present a new threepoint secanttype methods for finding simple root of nonlinear equations.The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Some essential definitions relevant to the present work are stated in the section 2. In section 3 we define some variants threepoint secanttype methods and prove their order of convergence. In section 4, we will demonstrate the similarity between the Tiruneh et al. method and one of the proposed methods. Finally, in section 5, numerical comparisons are made to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.
2. Preliminaries
In order to establish the order of convergence of an iterative method, following definitions are used [2,3,4,5,8,10].Definition 1 Let be a realvalued function with a root and let be a sequence of real numbers that converge towards . The order of convergence p is given by  (3) 
where and is the asymptotic error constant.Definition 2 Let be the error in the kth iteration, then the relation  (4) 
is the error equation. If the error equation exists, then p is the order of convergence of the iterative method.Definition 3 Let be the number of function evaluations of the method. The efficiency of the method is measured by the concept of efficiency index and defined as  (5) 
where p is the order of convergence of the method.Definition 4 Suppose that and are three successive iterations closer to the root of a nonlinear equation. Then the computational order of convergence [10] may be approximated by  (6) 
3. Derivation of the Methods and Convergence Analysis
In this section, we define new threepoint secanttype iterative methods. These methods are of three different order of convergence. Before these new threepoint secanttype iterative methods are stated we will denote the following,  (7) 
 (8) 
 (9) 
 (10) 
The first of the threepoint Secanttype method is of order 1.62 and is expressed as  (11) 
The next two of the threepoint Secanttype methods are of order 1.80 and they are expressed as  (12) 
 (13) 
The rest of the threepoint Secanttype methods are of order 1.84 and these are expressed as  (14) 
 (15) 
 (16) 
 (17) 
 (18) 
 (19) 
 (20) 
where are given by (7)(10) respectively, are the initial values and provided that the denominators of (11)(20) are not equal to zero. We emphasize that the formulas of (14), (18)(20) are given in [8]. It is essential to verify our finding and prove the order of convergence of the new threepoint secanttype iterative methods.Theorem 1Let be a sufficiently differentiable function and let for an open interval D has be a simple zero of in an open interval D, with in D. If the initial points are sufficiently close to then the asymptotic convergence order of the new methods defined by (16) is 1.84.Proof Let be a simple root of , i.e. and , and the errors at and iteration are expressed as and respectively.Using Taylor expansion and taking into account that we have  (21) 
 (22) 
 (23) 
where  (24) 
Using (21)(23), we obtain  (25) 
 (26) 
 (27) 
 (28) 
Substituting the expressions (25)(28) in (16), we obtain  (29) 
Simplifying, we obtain the error equation for the new threepoint Secanttype iterative method, given by (16) is  (30) 
In order to prove the order of convergence of (16) and we defining positive real terms of and as  (31) 
The error terms of are given as  (32) 
 (33) 
 (34) 
It is obtained from (30) that  (35) 
substituting the appropriate expressions of errors terms in (35), we get  (36) 
In order to satisfy the asymptotic equation (36), the power of the error term shall approach zero, that is  (37) 
The roots of the cubic equation (37) are;  (38) 
The order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype method is determined by the positive root of (38). Hence, the new threepoint Secanttype method defined by (16) has a convergence order of 1.84. This completes the proof.We repeat the procedure to prove the error equations for the other proposed threepoint Secanttype methods.Theorem 2Let be a sufficiently differentiable function and let for an open interval D has be a simple zero of in an open interval D, with in D. If the initial points are sufficiently close to then the asymptotic convergence order of the new methods defined by (12) and (13) is 1.80.Similarly, we prove the order of convergence of (12) and (13) by similar procedure of the previous proof. Using (25)(28) we get  (39) 
substituting the appropriate expressions of errors terms in (39), we get  (40) 
In order to satisfy the asymptotic equation (40), the power of the error term shall approach zero, that is  (41) 
The roots of the cubic equation (41) are;  (42) 
The order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype methods is determined by the positive root of (41). Hence, the new threepoint Secanttype methods defined by (12) and (13) has a convergence order of 1.80.It is elementary to prove the order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype method given by (11). Using the similar procedure as above, the order of convergence order of (11) is 1.62.RemarkThe new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods require single function evaluation and has the order of convergence 1.84 or 1.80. To determine the efficiency index of these new methods, definition 3 shall be used. Hence, the efficiency index of the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods is as their order of convergence.
4. Equivalence of the Approximation
In this section, we will demonstrate the similarity between the Tiruneh et al. (2) and the proposed method (16). First, we will simplify the Tiruneh et al. method,  (43) 
and then demonstrate the similarity of these methods. In order to show the equivalency, we simply equate the two methods.Let (16) = (43), we have  (44) 
Applying crossmultiplication rule to (44), we obtain  (45) 
Expanding (45), we have  (46) 
Further expansion of (46) yields  (47) 
Cancelling common factors, we obtain  (48) 
Simplifying, we get  (49) 
Factorizing,  (50) 
Simplifying, we have  (51) 
Replacing we obtain  (52) 
Further simplification yields  (53) 
Expanding (53), we have  (54) 
Cancelling common factors, we obtain  (55) 
Combining appropriate terms, we get  (56) 
Substituting given by (7)(9), into (56), we have  (57) 
Again, cancelling common factors, we obtain  (58) 
Mathematically, we have demonstrated the fact that the (2) and (16) Secanttype methods produce equivalent results. Hence, the equation (58) establishes that the Tiruneh et al. method (2) and the new threepoint Secanttype method (16) produce identical estimates of the simple root of the nonlinear equation. Furthermore, this is manifested in the numerical examples.
5. Numerical Test Results
The proposed threepoint Secanttype iterative methods are employed to solve nonlinear equation with simple root. The difference between the simple root and the approximation for test function with initial guess is displayed in tables. Furthermore, the computational order of convergence approximations is displayed in tables and we observe that this perfectly coincides with the theoretical result. The numerical computations listed in the table was performed on an algebraic system called Maple and the errors displayed are of absolute value.Numerical example 1We will demonstrate the order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods for the following nonlinear equation  (59) 
having the exact value of the simple root of (59) is In Table 1 the errors obtained by the methods described are based on the initial points Table 1. Errors occurring in the approximation of the simple root of (59) 
 

Numerical example 2We will demonstrate the order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods for the following nonlinear equation  (60) 
having exact value of the simple root of (60) is In Table 2 the errors obtained by the methods described are based on the initial points Table 2. Errors occurring in the approximation of the simple root of (60) 
 

Numerical example 3We will demonstrate the order of convergence of the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods for the following nonlinear equation  (61) 
having exact value of the simple root of (61) is In Table 3 the errors obtained by the methods described are based on the initial guess Table 3. Errors occurring in the approximation of the simple root of (61) 
 

6. Concluding Remarks
New threepoint secanttype methods for solving nonlinear equations with simple root have been presented. The effectiveness of the new iterative methods is examined by showing the accuracy of the simple root of several nonlinear equations. Convergence analysis proves that the new threepoint iterative methods preserve their order of convergence. Numerical examples are provided to support the theoretical results obtained and compared with different methods. The major advantages of the new threepoint Secanttype methods are that they are very effective and produces high precision of approximation of the simple root and they are derivativefree. Finally, we conclude that the new threepoint Secanttype iterative methods may be considered a very good alternative to the established methods.
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